Terms, Titles & Tribes

Haug

Old Norse (ON)  and other Language Terms, Titles and Places that appear in BLADE HONER

 

  • Agder (ON: Agðir): Agder has been a county in the southern parts of Norway ever since the unification of the tribes during the late 9th century. In the Gulating law, which was written down during the early 11th century, the county was known as Egða fylki, “the County of the Egðir”. The name refers to the tribe of the Egðir, who inhabited Agðir, which before the unification of Norway was a kingdom in its own right. In the Ynglinga saga, we hear of the last king of Agder, called Haraldr Granrauði (“Harald Red Beard”) who was the father of Ása Haraldsdottir.
  • Age of the Stone Temples: The Megalithic Age in Scandinavia (dolmens, passage graves, stonehenges and mazes)
  • Aldeigja (ON): Lake Ladoga close to modern day St. Petersburg
  • Aldeigjuborg (ON): A Viking settlement established ca 750 A.D. or earlier by the river Volkhov south of the Aldeigja
  • Alfablót (ON): Sacrifice to the elves – took place during the autumn equinox
  • Alfheimr (ON): A Norwegian kingdom in the area of present day Østfold districts between the rivers Rauma and Göta. A king called Gandalfr actually ruled here!
  • -arr (ON): Warrior or Spear. A word often used to make masculine names.
  • Atonement (ON: Són): Old Norse term for Sacrifice.
  • Berserker (ON: Bérserkr): “Bear Clothed” – Battle rage, seizure of fury/ man with the ability to go berserk.
  • Big Tunic Land (ON: Stóra Serkland): The Abbasid Caliphate with base in Baghdad. A Viking serk was a wide undergarment akin to a tunic reaching below the hips or down to the knees. The Vikings observed that such clothing, only bigger (longer), was used as a common garment in Arab countries and named them after that. They called their lands either Serkland (Tunic Land) or Stóra Serkland (Big Tunic Land).
  • Big Tunic men (ON: Serkmennir): Arabs
  • Blót (ON): Sacrifice
  • Blótgyðja (ON): Sacrificial priestess
  • Blue Land (ON: Bláland): Africa.
  • Blue Man: (ON: Blámaðr): African, black-skinned, dark-skinned man
  • Borg (ON: Borgr): Royal seat of the Haleygir in Lofoten, Norway, since the Iron Ages.
  • Burgundarholm (ON): The island of Bornholm and original homeland to the tribe of Burgunds that came to settle Burgundy during the Migration Age, and who feature in Edda poetry.
  • Clan-Follower (ON: Ættarfylgja), the divine soul of the clan´s or tribe´s ancestral mother.
  • Concubine (ON: Frilla): It was common for very rich and powerful men to have a wife of similar rank to himself, in the case of kings more than one wife, as well as lower-ranking concubines. When Haraldr Hárfagri set out to unite the tribes of Norway beneath one king (himself), one of the tactics was to marry the princesses of the various tribes.
  • Danes (ON: Danir): The Danes were possibly an original Swedish tribe which emigrated to Zealand some time before the 4th century A.D. “Dán” simply means “sovereign”, derived from the name of the ancient goddess Danu (“The Lady Sovereign”), a name that means the same as the more famous Freyia. Denmark was often called “Sál Freyiu” – The Lady´s Hall. According to their own legends, the ancestral mother of the Danes, as well as their most important goddess, Gefion (“The Provider” – and another name for Freyia) challenged the king of Sweden and demanded a piece of the land for herself and her people, the Aesir. She carved the Zealand island out of a large area in Sweden where the Mälaren lake now exists, and claimed the island for her descendants. Then she married Skioldr (“Shield”), Óðin´s son. Since then, the Danes were ruled by the Skioldunga lineage (Anglo-Saxon “Scyldinga”), and also moved into Jutland during the 4th and 5th centuries A.D., gradually pushing the older Jute tribes of Anglos and Saxons out of Jutland, forcing them to emigrate either south to Sachsen or west to England, where these “Anglo-Saxons” soon came to dominate the culture of Brittannia – henceforth, “England”, the land of the Anglos. The Skioldunga lineage was overthrown at some point and came to rule Scania in south-east Sweden, where their lineage ended with Ivarr Rules Widely, who only had a daughter, Auð the Deep-Minded, the female end of the Skioldunga lineage. She, however, became the ancestral mother to both the Swedish and the Danish royal houses.
  • Danu: The goddess Danu is of ancient, Proto-Indo-European origin, and seems to have denoted a water goddess in origin. A goddess Dānu is attested in the Rigveda, and also the river names Danube (Latin: Danuvius), Dniestr, Dniepr and Don derive from the name. The Rigvedic Danu was the mother of a race of Asuras called the Danavas. A shortened form of the name appears to have been Dā. The Greek goddess Demeter (Da-mater), is also associated with water several times. Julius Pokorny reconstructs the name from the PIE root da:-: “flow, river”, da:-nu: “any moving liquid, drops”, da: navo “people living by the river, Skyth. nomadic people (in Rigveda water-demons), fem. Da:nu primordial goddess , in Greek Danaoi (Danaans, Greek tribe, Egypt: Danuna). In Irish mythology, Danu (modern Irish Dana) is the mother goddess of the Tuatha Dé Danann (Old Irish: “The peoples of the goddess Danu”) primarily seen as an ancestral figure. As the mother of the gods, Danu has strong parallels with the Welsh literary figure (or goddess) Dôn, who is the mother figure of the medieval tales in the Mabinogion.
  • Denmark (ON: Danumarkr – “Field of the Danes/Field of Danu”): Since the 4th-5th centuries A.D., the land of the Danes consisted of the northernmost continental European peninsula of Jutland as well as the islands of Fyn and Zealand. Denmark often laid claim to large areas in southern Sweden and Norway, such as Scania, West-Götaland and Vestfold.
  • -dís (ON): “Goddess” – much used in women´s names, like Thordís
  • Earth (ON: Iórðr): The Earth-goddess. According to Snorri, the Heathens traced their lineages back to her and considered her a living, sentient being of great power and age, raising all life and taking all life back into herself. Thor was her first son. According to Classical accounts of Germanic legends, Thor´s son Mannus (Magni) was the ancestor of the German tribes. Earth was also, according to Snorri, the daughter of Night and Óðinn. She was also one of Óðin´s wives. She had many nicknames, such as Fjörgynn – “Life Struggle” and is often referred to as “broad-faced”.
  • Earth-Ball (ON:Jarðarbollr): A name for Earth. Kónungs Skuggsjá (1250 AD) declares that “Bollotr er jarðarhringr” – “The Earth-circle is round like a globe”
  • Elja (sg.)/Eljur (pl.) (ON): Co-wife/co-wives, co-concubines. The term described the relationship between women who shared the same husband or master.
  • Ests: A Finnish tribe giving name to Estland in the Baltic
  • Follower (ON: Fylgja): A female guardian spirit, often an ancestral mother, or a goddess, norn or valkyria, or an animal representing the personality of her owner. People were thought to have one, nine or many woman-followers, as well as one animal-follower each, always female. It was also common for clans and tribes to have a Clan-Follower.
  • Franks: First known as a confederation of Germanic tribes during the Migration Age, came to settle in Roman Gaul and mingled with the Gallo-Roman population. They kept their Germanic language and came to rule large areas in Western Europe, particularly what is now France and Germany. They became the nation that most fervently inflicted Christianity upon their Heathen neighbors to the north and east, especially during the age of Charlemagne.
  • Freyia (ON): Lady, female ruler, Sovereign (a title or honorific used for high-ranking females and name of most important goddess in Old Norse Heathen pantheon.)
  • Freyia´s Hall (ON: Höll Freyiu:) “Lady´s Hall”The womb
  • Freyr (ON): An old word for Lord, male ruler, Sovereign, King. By the time of the Viking Age the word was only used for the god of the same name, replaced by Heri and other words for lord and master, such as Rig, Dan etc. A Viking Age god of sex, virility, fertility, rain, sunshine, kingship, law, order, cultivated nature. Brother to Freyia. ♂
  • Freystone (ON: Freysteinn, Frösteinn): Lord Stone = the penis
  • Full Troth (ON: Fulltrú): A person´s patron god or goddess
  • Gabija (SLAVIC: “The Protector”): Goddess of Fire
  • Gaut (ON: Gautr): Geat, from Gautland (Götaland)
  • Gautland (ON): Götaland – The Land of the Geats, divided into East and Western kingdoms, the southernmost part of Sweden.
  • Góði (ON): Priest, Law Man, God (A title) ♂
  • Gotland (ON): An island to the east of the southern coast of Sweden
  • Gyðja/Gyða (ON): Priestess, Goddess (A title) ♀
  • Hálógaland (ON): “Land of High Flames” – the northernmost kingdom of Viking Age Norway, corresponding to the contemporary counties of Nordland, Lofoten, southern Troms and Nord-Trøndelag. The Haleygir were a confederation of several tribes and are mentioned in Classical Sources as the “Adogit” and similar. Their main royal seat was at Borg in Lofotr.
  • Hel (ON): The goddess of the dead/ The world of the dead, also known as Níflhel or Níflheimr – the Misty World. A place where souls go through ordeals (see: Judgment of the Norns) and souls are recycled in a mill/cauldron from which new streams of life emerge. NB: Not to be confused with Christian Hell.
  • Hel-Maiden (ON: Helju mey): referred to in Edda and Skaldic poetry (ex. Sólarlióð)
  • Hel Rune (ON: Heljurún): Death Rune, Death Fate, (title of a priestess of human sacrifice based on the title haliurunnae from Jordanes´ Getica. Description of the Hel Rune is partly based on Ibn Fadlan´s description of such priestesses among the Rus in the early 10th century and on the account of such priestesses among the Cimbri in the 1st century BC)
  • Heri (ON): Lord, Master (a title or honorific)
  • Hleiðargard (ON): Lejre in Zealand, Denmark, an important royal site since the 5th century AD, mentioned in Beowulf as the seat of King Hrotgard and the Skioldunga lineage.
  • Hǫrðaland (ON): Today a county on the west-coast of Norway (Bergen area), Hordaland was once the tribal land of the Hordes and a kingdom in its own right. The Hordes were probably among the first Vikings to visit England in 789 A.D. when they put down camp at Portland in the kingdom of Wessex, where they slayed Beadoheard, the king´s reve, and his men, who had had the audacity to ask the Horde Vikings to leave over their weapons. In Classical Sources they are referred to as “Arochi” and similar.
  • House-Bond (ON: Húsbondr): Lord/Patriarch/land-owner – “God of the Household”
  • House-Freyia (ON: Húsfreyia, Húsfrú, Húsfrya): Lady of the Household  .
  • Judgment of the Norns (ON: Nórna dómr): Referred to directly under said term in the Edda poems Sólarljód and the Fafnismál as a place of judgment for nine days after death in the seat of the norns.
  • Krivich (SLAVIC): An old Russian Slavic tribe that paid tribute to the Ru
  • Latgáli (BALTIC): An ancient Baltic tribe resident in present-day Latvia
  • Magni (ON): Greatness, Might (name of Thor´s son)
  • Maiden (ON: Mey/Mær): A title/honorific for girl or young, unmarried woman
  • Mare (ON: Mara): The personification of a night mare, riding men to death at night, with counterparts in mythologies worldwide. See “Pale Mare
  • Massacre of Verden: In October 782, Charlemagne ordered the massacre of 4,500 captive Heathen Saxons. According to the Royal Frankish Annals: “When he heard this, the Lord King Charles rushed to the place with all the Franks that he could gather on short notice and advanced to where the Aller flows into the Weser. Then all the Saxons came together again, submitted to the authority of the Lord King, and surrendered the evildoers who were chiefly responsible for this revolt to be put to death—four thousand and five hundred of them. This sentence was carried out. Widukind was not among them since he had fled to Nordmannia. When he had finished this business, the Lord King returned to Francia”.
  • Merian (FINNISH): An old Russian, Finno-Ugric tribe that paid tribute to the Rus
  • Miklagarðr: The ON name for Byzants/Constantinople (Istanbul)
  • Miöllnir (ON: “The Grinder” – “Thunderbolt” – “Lightning”): Thor´s hammer, a very ancient symbol
  • Nauma (ON): Name of river and river goddess/ancestral mother of the people of Naumdal in Hálogaland (presently Namdal district in Trøndelag, Norway)
  • Norns (ON: Nórnir): Goddesses of Fate in life and death (fates, ladies of the loom, kindly ones)
  • North Way (ON: Nordvégr): Norway – consisted of some 30 kingdoms, earldoms and Republics.
  • Night (ON: Nöttr): A goddess of primeordeal space and darkness, one of Odins wives, mother to Earth and Dagr (“Day”). In the Edda poem Hymiskvida, she is referred to as “Grandmother” and described as being terribly scary with her nine hundred heads.
  • Óðinn (ON) Odin: Spirit/Inspiration/Poetry  – a god of poetry, ecstasy, inspiration, witchcraft, shamanism, death, war and the afterlife. Aligned with Mercury. Had become the “All-Father” in Viking Age Sources.
  • Oseberg (ON: Ásabergr – “The Mound of the Gods”) – Viking Age burial site in Vestfold, Norway, the most splendid ship bural from the Viking Age, two high-standing women buried with many cultic items in 834 A.D.)
  • Parliament of the Goddesses (ON: Dísarthing): The great annual parliament of all Swedes, held in Uppsala since time immemorial. To this day, there has been an annual market at Uppsala by the same name (Disting) in Sweden. The parliament was accompanied by the raising of the “Hall of the Goddess” (Dísarsal) and a “sacrifice to the goddesses” (Dísablót).
  • Pale Mare (ON: Sínmara): Appears in Norse myths as an ogress of death and the keeper of the key to immortality
  • Peace of Wisdom (ON: Fróðafríðr): An Old Norse legendary Golden Age
  • Pērkons (BALTIC): The Thunder god
  • Perun (SLAVIC): The Thunder God
  • Rán (ON): “Robbery” – a goddess of the ocean who receives the drowned
  • Ránríki (ON): “The Kingdom of Rán”- a tribal land in south-east Norway
  • “Rán´s Fields”: The Ocean in ON poetry
  • Rauma (ON): The name of river goddess/ancestral mother to the people of Raumaríki (presently Romerike in southeast Norway)
  • Rus (SLAVIC/FINNIC term for the Scandinavian slavers 8th-10th century, originally “rowers” or “blondes”. After the Rus lord called Ruric (born ca. 830 A.D.) created a multi-ethnic (Norse, Balto-Slavic and Finnic) society, his tribal identity gave name to the Russian nation.
  • Saga (ON): History, Story – a name for the mother goddess Frigg
  • Saulé (BALTIC): The Sun Goddess
  • Saxons: The Saxons began as a confederation of German tribes during the Migration Age. During the 4th century A.D. their lands in Jutland were being usurped by the Danes, and some settled further south in what is now northern Germany, while others moved westwards with the Anglos to settle Brittannia, what became known as England and dominated by Anglo-Saxons. During the Saxon Wars, the Saxons that had remained in Sachsen, and now under the leadership of Widukind, rebelled against Charlemagne’s invasion and subsequent attempts to christianize them from their native Germanic paganism.
  • Seið (ON: Seiðr): Magic, witchcraft, divination, shamanism, secret mysteries
  • Seið-Womb (ON: Seiðberendr): A male sorcerer with a magical “womb”
  • Shadow-walker (ANGLO-SAXON: Sceadugenga): Sorcerer master of darkness, invisibility, out of body travel
  • Sheath of the Hall (ON: Hallinskíði): – a term known from the Edda where it is given as a feminine nickname for Heimdallr (ON: “Great World”) the god that represents the personified intelligence of the entire universe. The sagas often employ the word “sheath” as a metaphor for the vagina and for sex, and Viking bands kept female slaves for pleasure in their halls.
  • Síf (ON): Female Relative, a word for female relatives generally (and “name” of Thor´s golden-haired wife)
  • Sól (ON): The Sun Goddess
  • Sunna (ANGLO-SAXON): The Sun Goddess
  • Svearíki (ON): The Empire of the Swedes = Sweden, particularly Svíthióð, but expanded.
  • Svíthióð (ON): The Svear Tribe / Great Svear – “Sweden” north of Gautland, south of Norrland, Uppsala area
  • Star of Day (ON: Dágstjarna): The sun (from the poem Sólarlióð)
  • Star of Frigg (ON: Friggjarstjarna): Venus
  • Thor (ON: Þórr): “Thunder”. The Norse thunder god, responsible for protection of Earth, gods and people, and of oaths.
  • Thorsgóði (ON: Þórsgóði): Thunder Priest (A title, Thor´s priest)
  • Thorsgyðja (ON: Þórsgyðja): Thunder Priestess (A title, Thor´s priestess)
  • Thrúð (ON: Þrúðr): Power (the name of Thor´s daughter)
  • Thunder Warrior (ON: Þórarr) fictional title, but there was a popular Old Norse masculine name derived from the term; Thorarin (ON: Þórarinn – “The Thunder Warrior”)
  • Tschude (or Chud): A warlike Finnish Tribe known as slave hunters in Sámi lore
  • Týr (ON): Beast, God (A god of victory)
  • Uppsala (ON: “The Upper Halls”): A very ancient and important historical site in Sweden, famous for its three great mounds dedicated to the three great gods, the great annual sacrifice, the “Parliament of the Goddesses”, other ritual celebrations and a political power center until the 11th Century.
  • Valhalla (ON: Valhǫll): The Hall of the Slain/Chosen (An afterlife paradise for worthy Warriors)
  • Valkyria (ON): Chooser of the Slain/Chosen – a fate goddess choosing victory and death in battle and who takes the chosen slain to Valhalla among many other things. A kind of norn.
  • Vestfold (ON): A kingdom on the western side of the Oslo fjord in southeast-Norway, home to the Ynglinga kings, descendants of Ólaf the Tree-Feller, who had escaped from Sweden after Ivarr Rules Widely took the High Seat of Uppsala. Historically, Vestfold is famous for its many Bronze Age burial mounds, its significant Viking Age ship burials (such as Oseberg) and for Norway´s earliest known township and international trading port, Kaupang, and for the country´s oldest contemporary town, Tønsberg. Frankish annals from 813 A.D. reveal that two Danish kings, Harald and Reginfred, sons of king Godfred of Denmark, went with his army “ad Westarfoldam” (= to Vestfold) to suppress a rebellion, and Vestfold was described as localized in the northernmost part of Denmark, meaning that this area of Norway was subject to Denmark at this point.
  • -veigr (ON): “Power Drink” – a common word used for making female names
  • Víkin (ON): “The Bay” – the eastern side of the Oslo Fjord
  • Viking (ON: Víkingr – “Those who stay in the bays” / “People from Víkin (=East-Akershus, Norway): Pirates
  • Vingulmark (ON: “Impenetrable Forest”): An ancient oak-forest where only light-elves dwelled, presently the Oslo and Akershus area in Norway
  • Væringjar (ON): “Those who stay put” – “Varangians” (The Rus).
  • Ynglingar (ON): “Descendants of Yngr (Freyr)”, an ancient royal lineage with basis in Uppsala, Svíthióð. In Snorri´s Ynglinga saga, the Ynglinga lineage is counted backwards thirty generations, from Halfdan the Black, born ca. 810 A.D. to the arrival of the Aesir in Sweden, which, if the legends were true, would have happened sometime between 800-500 BC. The last Ynglinga king to rule in Uppsala was Ingjald the Bad Ruler. His son, Ólaf the Tree-Feller, was the first to enter Norway. His descendants became kings of Vestfold (for the most part). The last Ynglinga kings were Harald Hárfagri, who was the first to unite the tribes of Norway from the 860s onwards, prompted by a mysterious maiden called Gyða – “The Priestess”.
  • Wand-Witch: Based on the ON title Vǫlva from vǫl – “wand” used for a woman who was a professional practitioner of seiðr
  • Žemyna: (BALTO-SLAVIC: The Earth Goddess)

 

One thought on “Terms, Titles & Tribes

  1. Pingback: HOW SWEDEN BECAME ONE KINGDOM | BLADE HONER

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