Steinunn Réfsdóttir – A Female Skald at the Age of Conversion

Steinunn Skald was an Icelandic woman and devoted pagan who came from a powerful family of góðar – as in pagan priests. She was the daughter of Refr the Great and mother to a famous skald, Hofgarða-Refr Gestsson, a name which translates as “Refr of the Temple Farms, son of Gest”.

She was also a poet in her own right, and one of the few female skalds whose poetry, albeit only two verses, have been preserved in writing. She composed the verses as a way of letting a Christian missionary know that her lord Thor had crushed his ship and was, therefore, stronger than Christ. She was the only representative of the pagan faith that these missionaries could not outwit in any way.

Steinunn was a real historical person, mentioned in three saga sources: Njáls saga, Kristni saga and Landnámabók.

In Landnámabok (the book about the settling of Iceland), she is listed as the niece of a pagan priest, Hjörleif Góði, whose sister was Finna, married to Refr the Geat, and they had Steinunn, who was the mother of Refr of the Temple Farms by a certain Gest. (Landnámabók 27: Hans son var Skafti, faðir Hjörleifs goða og Finnu, er átti Refur hinn mikli, faðir Steinunnar móður Hofgarða-Refs.)

In Kristni saga (the saga of the conversion to Christianity), we hear that the Saxon missionary Thangbrand had his ship wrecked and that Steinunn composed a verse about it, and we are then given the verses.

But in Njáls saga, we get more detail, so I have chosen to quote from that one:

Steinunn Skald in Brennu-Njáls saga

Erik Werenskiold Heimkringla illustration, Sigrid and Olaf Tryggvason

Erik Werenskiold illustration to Heimskringla

100: “There was a change of rulers in Norway. Earl Hákon had passed away, and in his place came Olaf Tryggvason [King of Norway between 995 and 1000 A.D., and the second king who attempted to convert Norway to Christianity]. The end of Earl Hákon´s life came when the slave Kark cut his throat at Rimul in Gaulardal. Along with this came the news of a change of religion in Norway. They had given up their old faith [actually, more than half the population was still pagan and did not convert until sometime after 1030 A.D., 35 years later]. The king had also converted the western lands to Christianity; the Shetlands, Orkney, and the Faroe Islands. Many people [in Iceland] were saying, and Njál heard them, that it was a great scandal to reject the old faith …

…That autumn a ship came into Berufjord [in Iceland] in the east and landed at a place called Gautavik. Thangbrand was the name of the skipper; he was the son of Count Vilbaldus of Saxony and had been sent out here to Iceland by King Olaf Tryggvason to preach the faith. With him was an Icelander called Gudleif, who was the son of Hogni Ari, the son of Mar, the son of Atli, the son of Ulf the Squinter, the son of Hogni the White, the son of Otrygg, the son of Oblaud, the son of King Hjorleif the Womanizer of Hordaland. Gudleif was a great warrior and very brave, tough in every way….

101: The following spring Thangbrand travelled around preaching the faith, and Hall went with him… [what follows is an account of how Thangbrand and Hall encountered many pagan enemies of the Christian faith and conquered them all in diverse ways – all, until they met with Steinunn Skald:]

102: … Hjalti and Gizur the White went abroad that summer. Thangbrand´s ship, the Bison, was wrecked off Bulandsnes in the east. Thangbrand travelled through all the western part of the land. Steinunn, the mother of Ref the Poet, came to meet him. She preached heathenism at great length to Thangbrand. Thangbrand was silent while she spoke, but then spoke at length and turned all her arguments upside down.

“Have you heard,” she said, “that Thor challenged Christ to a duel and that Christ didn’t dare to fight with him?”

“What I have heard,” said Thangbrand, “is that Thor would be mere dust and ashes if God didn’t want him to live.”

“Do you know,” she said, “who wrecked your ship?”

“What can you say about it?” he said.

“I will tell you,” she said:

  1. The shaping gods drove ashore

The ship of the Keeper of Bells [=Thangbrand]

The  Slayer of the Son of the Giantess [=Thor]

smashed Bison on the Sea-Gull´s Rest [=the sea]

No help came from Christ

when the Sea-Horse [=the ship] was crushed:

I don’t think God was guarding

Gylfi´s Reindeer [=the ship] at all.

She spoke another verse:


  1. Thor drove Thangbrand´s Beast of Thvinnil [=the ship]

far from its place;

he shook and shattered

the ship and slammed it ashore;

never will that Oak [=the ship] of Atal´s Field [=the sea]

be up to sea-faring again;

the storm, sent by Thor,

smashed it so hard into bits.

With that, Steinunn and Thangbrand parted, and Thangbrand and his men went west to Bardastrond.”


Steinunn´s poetry in the original language:

10.Þórr brá Þvinnils dýri Þangbrands ór stað lǫngu, hristi búss ok beysti barðs ok laust við jǫrðu; munat skíð of sæ síðan sundfœrt Atals grundar, hregg þvít hart tók leggja hônum kent í spônu.

11.Braut fyr bjǫllu gæti (bǫnd rôku Val Strandar) mǫgfellandi mellu môstalls visund allan; hlífðit Kristr, þás kneyfði knǫrr, malmfeta varrar; lítt hykk at goð gætti Gylfa hreins at einu.


Njáls saga 100-102 (The Complete Sagas of the Icelanders III, Viðarr Hreinsson, ed., Robert Cook, Terry Gunnell, Keneva Kunz, Bernard Scudder, Leifur Eiriksson Publishing 1997)

Landnámabók 27 ( )




“The Briton´s Kinsman of the Cave” – Foreign Identities in Old Norse Poetical Metaphors

Not long ago, someone asked me in a comment on social media whether the elves [álfar] in Norse mythology might not be a cover for the Sami [Sápmi] people. As an argument, the questioner referred to the Edda poem Vǫlundarkvíða [Lay of Volund].

The poem centers on the tragic hero, Vǫlundr, who in the prose introduction to the poem is identified as one of the three sons of the Finnakonungr – the Finnish King. In the Old Norse language, a Finn equaled a Sami person. Furthermore, Vǫlund´s realm, Ulfdal [Wolf Valley] is invaded by a king from the south, Vǫlundr is captured and hamstrung and set to work in the king´s forge on an islet, exploited, but extracts his revenge through the use of great magic. The idea that the poem deals with cultural memories of how the Sami people were suppressed and exploited by Norse people who lived to the south of them is certainly tempting, although it should be mentioned that Norse and Sami people mainly lived side by side in peace and that there is little reason to speak of severe suppression until quite late – the Sami paid taxes to Norse kings during the Viking Age, but so did everybody else, including the common Norseman. The real suppression did not come until way after the conversion, when the Sami came to represent the only surviving pagans of Scandinavia.

In stanza 13 and stanza 32 of the actual poem, the conquering king addresses Vǫlundr as a Lord of Elves [visr alfr].

Do these cues prove that elves were really ways of describing the Sami people in poetry and myth?

Not really. Another “Lord of Elves” in Norse mythology is actually Freyr, who is often called Álfa Drottinn [“Lord of Elves”] (yes, they had tons of words for “lord”), and he was clearly a god of agriculture, law, kingship, representing a lifestyle that was not exactly particular to the hunter-gatherer culture of the Sami.

Also, Vǫlundr is described as a smith. His magic is conjured mainly through the forging of metals. Metalwork was not exactly particular to the reindeer-hunting Sami either. In fact, elves are often identified with dwarfs as well as with the so-called haugbúi – the mound dweller, the soul of an ancestral father being present and awake in his burial mound. And they are constantly associated with the forging of metals, which is clearly not a good description of the Sami people.

What about his magic? We know that the Sami were deeply respected for their magical prowess and that Norse people sought them for shamanistic séances and even for apprenticeships. But even in his magic does Vǫlundr fit neatly into Old Norse traditions.

His name means “Wand Grove” – incidentally, in Old Norse, a labyrinth is called a Vǫlundarhús – “The House of the Wand Grove”. Labyrinths had been used by Norse people ever since they imported the symbol and rituals from the Minoan culture during the Bronze Age.

The word for wand in his name and in the word for labyrinth, vǫlr, is the same word that is applied in the title of the famous oracle of Old Norse religion, the Vǫlva [“Wand-Wed”/ “Shrine of the Wand”].

If we look to more details in the poem, we may notice that Vǫlundr and his two brothers are married to three “southern” valkyriur, who one day show up at Sævarströnd, spinning the precious linen of fate and wearing the hides of swans. The name of this place where the three “sons of the Finnish king” meet their supernatural, fate-spinning valkyriur, literally translates as “The Beach of the Soul”. Later, when Vǫlundr is set to work at the king´s forge, this forge is situated on an islet called Sævarstadir – “The Place of the Soul”. The symbolism of Wolf Valley and Wolf Lake in the poem, where the three “Finnish” brothers go to live with their divine valkyria wives, are typical to Norse myths – wolves represent desire, ambition, hunger, greed, will to live, all the positive and negative aspects of being alive in the material world.

Rather than being a story of one people suppressing another, it is a story of how the soul may get lost in the material world of the living, how the soul may succumb to the powers of greed. This is not far-fetched; Norse myths are in fact related to the myths of the Vedas, where such themes abound.

Also, the worship of elves in Norse religion is well known. The annual Alfablót was also intimately linked to the worship of ancestral fathers, and we know that there was a frequent overlap in Norse sources between the álfar [elves] and the haugbúir [mound-dwellers, i.e. buried ancestors]. The worship of elves was clearly connected to ancestral father worship – and as such, the elves are somehow connected to archaic, shamanistic concepts of the “soul”.

Interpreting the story of Vǫlundr as a story of the Sami people fails when seen in a larger context, and is an interpretation that fails to consider the metaphorical and spiritual aspects of Norse myths. And there is more. Norse poets constantly applied foreign identities in order to describe otherworldly creatures:

“The Scots of Iði´s Settlement”.

In Norse myths, foreign identities are constantly used to describe the “other” – whether they are gods, elves, dwarfs or giants. Let me use the Skaldic poem Thorsdrápa [Þórsdrápa – Song of Thunder] as an example, since I recently translated it for my latest book, The Trickster and the Thundergod:

In the Þórsdrápa, we hear the story of Thor´s battle with the giant Geirrǫðr and his daughters. The rules of Skaldic poetry demand that every character or place is referred to by poetical metaphors known to us as kennings.

The poem consists of 19 stanzas going through every detail of that myth, in each stanza providing at least two marvelous kennings for “Thor” (or “god”) and another two kennings for “giant”.

This means that the poet had to invent at least 38 metaphors for “giant” just for this one poem. And so he got creative. Among these 38 kennings for “giant”, Elifr (the poet) applied several different foreign identities in order to say “giant”.

Out of 38 kennings, only one, in stanza 18, actually refers to the giant by its real name, Jötunn. The rest apply all sorts of associations that would be understandable to a Norse audience well used to the concepts of poetical metaphors and allegories. And the application of foreign identities in order to describe giants are frequent:

Eilifr, the poet, was a Norwegian skald,  addressing an audience of Norwegians who obviously did not come from the county of Rogaland, and who thought that the use of Britons, Scots, Welsh, Swedes and, well, Rogalanders, were perfectly fine poetical metaphors for “giants”.

  • In stanza 2, we learn that giants may be called ríkri skotum Iðja setrs : The Scots of Iði´s Settlement.
  • In stanza 11, a giant is called skyld-Breta skytju: The Briton´s Kinsman of the Cave.
  • In stanza 12, giants are called Flesdrótt kólgu dólg-Svíþjóðar: The Wave of the Enemy Crowd of Svear (Swedes).
  • In stanza 13, the court of giants is referred to as hellis hringbálkar Kumra: The Welsh Ring Court of the Cave.
  • In stanza 19, the giants are called Rygir Lista val-látrs: The Rogalanders of the Districts of the Falcon Lair. Rogaland was then an ancient tribal land and is still a county of the same name in southwestern Norway.

Does this mean that Scots, Britons, Welsh, Swedes and Rogalanders were identified as giants? Of course not. They were identified as giants no more than Finns were identified as elves. In the poem Haustlöng by another Norwegian skald, Thióðolf, a giant is indeed referred to as a Fjalla Finns: A Mountain-Finn.

So when another poem refers to a Finn who is also an elf, like Vǫlundr, this does not mean that Finns (Sami) and elves are identifiable, for then, Finns would also be identifiable to giants, just like Scots, Britons, Swedes and Rogalanders.

And let us not forget the Danes; in the Edda poem Hýmiskviða, stanza 17, giants are referred to as BergdanirMountain-Danes – and Thor is their “breaker”, Briotr Bergdana; the Breaker of the Mountain Danes.

Not even the Goths/Gauts (people from Götaland in Sweden) are spared: In stanza 20, we hear that the boat of the giant Hymir is referred to as Hlunngotr – “The Wave-Goth”. In fact, the use of gotr/gautr (Goth, Götalander) often appears in Norse myths either referring to a man in general, a god, a horse – or in kennings for other steeds (like boats)– and for giants.

We know that many of the skalds whose poems have been preserved to us because of Icelandic chroniclers were Norwegians, many of them from the courts of Trøndelag in Norway, and that this area may also have been a late pagan cultural stronghold in which many of the Edda poems took the forms that we know today. To these Norwegian Thronds, other tribes such as Goths, Danes, Swedes, Finns, Britons, Scots, Welsh and Rogalanders were representing foreign identities, that which existed outside of their home spheres.

For this reason only, they could be applied in poetical metaphors for “giants”. And all through the Norse material, what counted for foreign identities could be used not only for giants, but for all supernatural beings – even the gods are sometimes appearing in the guise of a foreign nation – someone from the outside – such as when the Edda heroic poetry applies the Hunnish nation to describe the Aesir and the king Attila to describe Odin – an identification which was clearly not meant to be understood literally.

Article by Maria Kvilhaug


Lussi Long-Night

The night between the 12th and the 13th of December has held a special place in Viking Age and Medieval Scandinavia. Our pre-Christian sources to this celebration are scarce, and we can only rely on folklore that survived until the present day and that we know was practiced at least by the 13th century – its attributes clearly stemming from far earlier, pagan times.


Julereia – the Yule Riders – led by Lussi in some traditions, this was the night when the creatures of the other worlds would roam the night, and people ought to stay inside.

This is the night when the month of Yule began. And it was also the most dangerous night of the year. A female spirit, a vette, ruled this night, going by the name of Lussi (“Light”). She was the mother and/or queen of the vettir (spirits) and other Huldrefolk (otherwordly beings), as such a kin to Huldra, gnomes, trolls, and at some time in history, even to the gods (hence her relation to the Ásgardsrei – the Riders from Ásgard, who in some traditions appeared on this night, while in other traditions they are called the Julereia – the Yule Riders). People had to stay inside this night, eating and celebrating to placate and avert the anger of Lussi´s retinue, and keeping the lights on. It was also very important to take care of the animals.

images lucia 05

Lussi, pale-faced and terrible, would come to check that everything was ready for Yule – the spinning and the baking, primarily. If this work was not satisfactory, she could become so angry that she came down the chimney and into the house, and sometimes she would break down the whole chimney. Or she could press her terrifying face to the window to check how it looked, and if things were not ready for Yule, she would, according to Norwegian sources, cry out, piercingly: “Inkje bryggja, inkje baga, inkje store eld hava!!” (Not brewed, not baked, no great fire do they have!”)

Julereia (the Yule Riders) by Niels Bergslien. Lussi was the mother and queen of the otherworldly creatures that roamed the Long (dark) Night of Light.

This was also the night of the year in which the animals would talk to each other and let pass their verdicts on how their humans treated them – and woe to the people who did not treat their animals well – vengeance would then come from Lussi and her retinue of dark winter spirits! So the barn and the stable had to be clean and comfy for the beasts, and they would be bribed with particularly good food this night, in the hopes that they would give a favorable report to Lussi. The animals would discuss all the year´s events and pass on all the gossip that they had witnessed.

This was thought to be the longest night of the year, hence the term “langnatt” (Long Night). And apart from brewing the beer and the ale and the mead, feeding the animals well and keeping the houses clean, and having finished with the year´s spinning, the most important cakes had to be made; the Lussi-cats (a term indicating a link between Lussi and the goddess Freyia?).

Lussi Cats

The Lussi-cats (Lussekatter) are baked with sapphron (although you may use turmeric), an imported spice that gives a yellow color, symbolizing gold, sun and light, all associated with both Freyia and Lussi. They must be formed like two spirals, and a raisin or other dry fruit would serve to give the impression of cat´s eyes, sight in the dark. These are ancient symbols of the sun reaching back to the Nordic Bronze Age. It was important to have these cakes ready for Lussi, although they were eaten in her honor by all the people of the farm, including the lowest.

As soon as the Scandinavian countries had taken to Christianity, Lussi Long-Night became the celebration of a Roman saint, Lucia (also meaning “light”). The celebration would take the form of a procession led by a young maiden carrying a crown with four candles, singing “Santa Lucia”. She symbolizes the bringer of light in the dark. To what degree this celebration took a new form or is directly copied from pagan ritual processions is not known, but it is widespread; particularly in Scandinavia and in Italy, and in the Nordic primstav, a wooden runic calendar, her celebration was always marked.

If you want to bake Lussi-cats, here is a recipe:

Hel´s and Thor´s Family Relations


Hel and ThorI am pretty sure some of you are going to be surprised by this chart I made, showing the lineages of Loki, his children – and Thor´s own maternal lineage. But this chart is based directly on the Norse sources we have, and Snorri based his genealogy on the much older skaldic poetry in which gods and giants are often referred to as the son or daughter of this, and the sibling of that, and these are consistent.

We should never imagine that the family relations of gods and giants are going to be “logical” in the sense of adhering to ordinary human genealogy, and if we look at it, we see that the sharp distinction between gods and giants has never really been there – that distinction is a much younger legacy we carry with us that was simply not there when people still had a pagan mindset.

The idea that there was a fight between “good” on one side and “evil” on the other side is an idea we have inherited from Christianity. The fight between the powers in Norse, Pagan  mythology is a lot more subtle and a lot less clear-cut: Whereas it is true that the giants often represented a threat to the gods, to men and to the divine order, they were not “evil” as such, or completely different from the gods. The gods married giantesses – Gerd and Skadi are two grand examples of that. The gods even descended from giants and giantesses. Loki was a Jötunn but also of the Aesir. And even Odin himself sought out the giants and the giantesses when he needed to learn more about the world, and about wisdom.

Here follows the text on which this chart is made:

Gylfaginning, Chapter 33:

About Loki Laufeyson

“Among the Aesir is counted the one whom some call the Slanderer among the Gods, and he is the origin of all treason, and a shame to gods and men. His name is Loki or Loftr[1], the son of Fárbauti[2] the Jötunn[3]. His mother is called Laufey or Nál.[4] His brothers are Býleistr[5] and Helblindi.[6] Loki is beautiful and fair to look at, but evil of character and fickle in his behavior. More than other men he had that quality called cunning, sly tricks for every purpose. Often he led the Aesir into great trouble, and often he solved these troubles with his cunning advice.

His wife is Sígyn[7], and their son is Nári or Narfi.[8]

Gylfaginning chapter 34: “Loki also had more children. Angrbóða[9] was the name of a giantess in the Giant World.[10] By her, Loki had three children. One was the Fenris-wolf.[11] Another was Jörmungandr,[12] that is the Middle World Serpent.[13] The third is Hel.[14]

When the gods knew that these siblings were being brought up in the Giant World, and they considered the prophecies, that these siblings may cause misfortune; on the mother´s side they had a very bad legacy, and it was even worse on the father´s side, then All-Father (Odin) sent the Aesir on their way to claim the children and lead them to him.

And when they came to him, he threw the serpent out into the deep ocean that surrounds all lands, and the serpent grew so that it lies in the middle of the sea around all lands and bites its own tail. He threw Hel into Misty World[15] and gave her the power to rule nine worlds, so that she could lead away all those who were sent to her, the ones who die from illness and old age. She has great estates and halls there, and around them there is a fearsome high fence and an enormous gate. Her hall is called Dampened By Rain, her table Hunger, her knife Starvation, her slave Slow Walk, and her slave girl Slow Walk, her doorstep is called Falling Danger, her bed Sickly, her bedcovers Shining Accident.[16]

She is blue (black, dark) on one side, but has an ordinary complexion on the other side, so that she is easily recognized, somber and scary as she is.”

Divine family relations are often complicated, and often defy our assumptions about gods and giants. In the text above, we hear that Loki´s first son by his wife, Sígyn, was Narfi.

Narfi, meaning “Corpse”, is also mentioned elsewhere as the father of Night and the grandfather of Earth – and, since Earth is the mother of Thor, the Norse thundergod, and besides the mother of all human lineages as well, Loki´s son is actually Thor´s great grandfather. In Gylfaginning 10, we read:

“Nörfi or Narfi was that giant called who built in the Giant World. He had a daughter whose name was Night. She was black and dark as her lineage. She was married to the man who is called Naglfari (Nail Traveller). Their son was Abundance. After that she was married to the one called Ánarr (Ancestor). Their daughter was Earth. Finally she was married to Dellingr (Shining/Famous One), and he was of divine lineage. Their son was Day.”


Footnotes below.

Old Norse Text:


33. Frá Loka Laufeyjarsyni.

Sá er enn talðr með ásum, er sumir kalla rógbera ásanna ok frumkveða flærðanna ok vömm allra goða ok manna. Sá er nefndr Loki eða Loftr, sonr Fárbauta jötuns. Móðir hans heitir Laufey eða Nál. Bræðr hans eru þeir Býleistr ok Helblindi. Loki er fríðr ok fagr sýnum, illr í skaplyndi, mjök fjölbreytinn at háttum. Hann hafði þá speki um fram aðra menn, er slægð heitir, ok vélar til allra hluta. Hann kom ásum jafnan í fullt vandræði, ok oft leysti hann þá með vélræðum. Kona hans heitir Sigyn, sonr þeira Nari eða Narfi.

34. Frá börnum Loka ok bundinn Fenrisúlfr.

Enn átti Loki fleiri börn. Angrboða hét gýgr í Jötunheimum. Við henni gat Loki þrjú börn. Eitt var Fenrisúlfr, annat Jörmungandr, þat er Miðgarðsormr, þriðja er Hel. En er goðin vissu til, at þessi þrjú systkin fæddust upp í Jötunheimum, ok goðin rökðu til spádóma, at af systkinum þessum myndi þeim mikit mein ok óhapp standa, ok þótti öllum mikils ills af væni, fyrst af móðerni ok enn verra af faðerni, þá sendi Alföðr til goðin at taka börnin ok færa sér. Ok er þau kómu til hans, þá kastaði hann orminum í inn djúpa sæ, er liggr um öll lönd, ok óx sá ormr svá, at hann liggr í miðju hafinu of öll lönd ok bítr í sporð sér.
Hel kastaði hann í Niflheim ok gaf henni vald yfir níu heimum, at hon skyldi skipta öllum vistum með þeim, er til hennar váru sendir, en þat eru sóttdauðir menn ok ellidauðir. Hon á þar mikla bólstaði, ok eru garðar hennar forkunnarhávir ok grindr stórar. Éljúðnir heitir salr hennar, Hungr diskr hennar, Sultr knífr hennar, Ganglati þrællinn, Ganglöt ambátt, Fallandaforað þresköldr hennar, er inn gengr, Kör sæing, Blíkjandaböl ársali hennar. Hon er blá hálf, en hálf með hörundarlit. Því er hon auðkennd ok heldr gnúpleit ok grimmlig.

10. Tilkváma Dags ok Nætr.

Nörfi eða Narfi hét jötunn, er byggði í Jötunheimum. Hann átti dóttur, er Nótt hét. Hon var svört ok dökk, sem hon átti ætt til. Hon var gift þeim manni, er Naglfari hét. Þeira sonr hét Auðr. Því næst var hon gift þeim, er Ánarr hét. Jörð hét þeira dóttir. Síðast átti hana Dellingr, ok var hann ása ættar. Var þeira sonr Dagr. Var hann ljóss ok fagr eftir faðerni sínu. Þá tók Alföðr Nótt ok Dag, son hennar, ok gaf þeim tvá hesta ok tvær kerrur ok sendi þau upp á himin, at þau skulu ríða á hverjum tveim dægrum umhverfis jörðina. Ríðr Nótt fyrri þeim hesti, er kallaðr er Hrímfaxi, ok at morgni hverjum döggvir hann jörðina af méldropum sínum. Sá hestr, er Dagr á, heitir Skinfaxi, ok lýsir allt loft ok jörðina af faxi hans.”

[1] Nobody has ever been able to agree on the meaning of the name Loki. It may possibly be related to the Norse verb for “to close” something; loka. His other name, however, Loftr/Loptr means «Lofty, High, Airy», from ON lopt – “air”.

[2] Fárbauti means “The Dangerous Hitter”, perhaps in the sense of lightening.
[3] Jötunn literally means «devourer» but is usually translated as «giant».

[4] Laufey literally translates as “Leaf Island”, possibly a metaphor for Earth. Her other name, Nál, means “needle” as in something piercing, narrow and sharp.

[5] Býleistr (or Byleiptr, Byleiftr) translates as “Wind Lightning” (from bylr=wind and leiptr=lightning).

[6] Helblindi means «Death Blind» or «Death Blinder», perhaps an allusion to immortality, and is also one of the names for the god Odin.

[7] Sígyn: “Victory Woman»

[8] Nári: from nár=corpse. Narfi is an alternate form of the same, and is in other sources identified with Nörr, a giant who is said to be the father of Night: “Nörfi or Narfi was that giant called who built in the Giant World. He had a daughter whose name was Night. She was black and dark as her lineage. She was married to the man who is called Naglfari (Nail Traveller). Their son was Abundance. After that she was married to the one called Ánarr (Ancestor). Their daughter was Earth. Finally she was married to Dellingr (Shining/Famous One), and he was of divine lineage. Their son was Day.” (Gylfaginning 10, Prose Edda by Snorri Sturluson). In another passage, Odin was the one who fathered Earth on Night.

[9] Angrbóða=”Bids Anger”

[10] “Giantess”=gýgr. “Giant World”=Jötunheimr

[11] Fenrisulfr/Fenrir=Greed

[12] Jörmungandr= Great Magic

[13] “Middle World Serpent”=Miðgarðsormr

[14] Hel= Hidden = Death

[15] «Misty World»=Níflheimr, the icy dark world from which Odin´s own father and grandfather emerged at the beginning of the universe.

[16] Éljúðnir heitir salr hennar, Hungr diskr hennar, Sultr knífr hennar, Ganglati þrællinn, Ganglöt ambátt, Fallandaforað þresköldr hennar, er inn gengr, Kör sæing, Blíkjandaböl ársali hennar

The Indo-European Migrations

For a long time, the only evidence we had of an ancient, proto-Indo-European culture was the fact that many European and Asian languages evidently belonged to the same family, sharing a basic grammatical structure and etymology.

By the method of comparative linguistics, scholars since the 19th century have been working on comparing languages in order to establish how they relate to each other historically. Languages that share many root words and which follow a similar grammatical structure may share common historical origins.

By way of comparison and cutting languages down to commonly shared roots words, scholars have been able to reconstruct what they believe may have been the original, Proto-Indo-European language.

Ethnicity Does Not Equal Language

A shared language family does not necessarily mean that all the speakers are ethnically or genetically related. Sometimes, a new language is introduced into a geographical area or a tribe of people due to invasion or else significant  foreign influence on trade, economy, and the culture of the ruling classes.

  • The Romans, for example, added to, but did not replace the older, Celtic-speaking populations of Gaul (France) and Iberia (Spain & Portugal), but their Italic (Latin) language held so much influence for hundreds of years that the residents in these lands have been speaking Italic languages ever after.
  • The Anglo-Saxons who arrived from Jutland in Britannia as soon as the Romans had packed up and left some time before the 5th century AD, likewise added to, but did not replace, the older Celto-Roman populations, they just held such prominent positions in society for such a long time that most people began to speak their language, “Old English”.
  • People in Turkey carry the same genetic ancestry as people in Greece and other parts of southeastern Europe, and were once very much a part of the Classical world and the Roman Empire. Yet, because of a Turkic invasion from the east happening only a thousand years ago, they now speak Turkish, a Turkic language.

If the upper classes promote a particular language, this is the language that is going to dominate eventually.

  • 15th century Scandinavia experienced a surge of foreign economic investments from German and Dutch-speaking countries. These rich foreigners held such a dominant position for such a long time that, eventually, speaking medieval German and Dutch was for a long time deemed more classy and fashionable than speaking the native language, “Old Norse”. This attitude changed the Scandinavian languages from the original “Old Norse” to the languages spoken today – the change took less than a century to be completed. Only Iceland and the Faroe Islands were able to maintain their original Norse language.

The language of the upper classes is the language in which documents are written, and is always the language that is deemed the most fashionable, classy and cultivated one. This in itself is enough to change the language of a nation, and does not mean that the people themselves have been replaced.

If we look at the populations of Finland compared to the populations of Scandinavia, we see that they speak completely different languages.

  • Finnish belongs to the Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic language family.
  • Scandinavian languages (Danish, Norwegian, Swedish) belong to the Indo-European language family.

And yet, if we look at the archaeological as well as genetic lineages of the populations of Finland and Scandinavia, it is clear that we mostly share the same ancestors. Finland knew exactly the same Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures as did Scandinavia, cultures that have now been recognized as basically Indo-European, but, like the Hungarians and the Basque peoples, they maintained their older language forms. Evidently, the Indo-European speakers did not always manage to complete their linguistic domination in all European lands.

For this reason, we cannot assume that the spread of the Indo-European language family always meant invasions and massive migrations, even if these evidently also happened. It could just as easily mean that one particular culture held so much economic and cultural influence in an area that their language became the official language spoken by all, a bit like the position of English in so many other countries than just England.

The “universal” language does not mean that the other languages are wiped out, but history has shown that the existence of one dominant, universal language may, after centuries of dominance, influence other languages to such a degree as to change them forever.

However, as show the examples of Finnish, Hungarian and Basque, some groups may retain their original languages despite massive cultural influence from abroad.

The Proto-Indo-Europeans


In recent years, archaeological and genetic evidence has shown a pattern that is so consistent with the spread of the Indo-European language family that it is now widely regarded as connected. As such, it is pretty safe to say that there was indeed a proto-Indo-European tribe existing 6000 years ago on the Pontic Caspian Steppe.

A steppe people, they shared similar lifestyles to their eastern steppe neighbors, among them Proto-Turks and Proto-Mongols; although they knew agriculture, they were primarily pastoral (shepherding) and nomadic people whose wealth depended on the size of their flocks, a trait they also shared with numerous Afro-Asiatic (including Semitic) pastoral mountain tribes to their south. As such, they had, culturally and economically speaking, more in common with these diverse groups of nomadic shepherds than they had with the hunter-gatherers to the north or the European agricultural village peoples of the southwest or the civilizations of the southeast.

The Yamna Culture

One of the earliest cultures known to archaeology that is associated with the Indo-European language family is the Yamna. This culture is now regarded as the most likely candidate for a Proto-Indo-European culture which existed between 6.000 and 4.300 years ago (4.000-2.300 BCE). The name of this culture is Ukrainian for “Pit Grave” culture, a name given by archaeologists based on their burial customs. It is also associated with (identical to) the Kurgans.

The Yamna descended partially from the Ice Age Mal`ta Buret culture that existed on the western side of lake Baikal 15.000 years ago. Genome studies of skeletons from this culture show that these Baikal people of East Central Asia were also among the ancestors to Siberian and Native American peoples. Some 15.000 years ago, some of these East Asians moved further east and north and entered the American continent, others moved north and became Siberians, while others still moved west and roamed the Pontic Caspian steppes until they reached the area to the north of the Caucasus, where they mingled with descendants of Ice Age Europeans and Ice Age Middle Eastern peoples. By 6.000 years ago, this mix of three different geographical and ethnic origins, all Ice Age hunter-gatherers, had become a culture in their own right, the shepherding Yamna, and the first speakers of an Indo-European language.

Nordic Looks?

Because of the study of ancient and modern genomes, we know that about 50 % of father-to-son (Y-DNA) lineages in Scandinavia derive directly from the Yamna, lineages that are also shared by most men who live in the areas of Khazakstahn and Russia. The other 50 % of male Scandinavians, as well as a majority of mother lineages (MtDNA) descend from the earlier Scandinavian populations. This means that, counting both genders, about 25-40 % of Scandinavian genomes derive directly from the Yamna, and the rest is, strictly speaking, from European prehistory before the Indo-European migration.

In other parts of Europe, the percentage of Yamna DNA is lower, sometimes considerably so, and one of the reasons for this is that there were a lot more people living in the rest of Europe compared to the northernmost parts, so that the Yamna could not dominate in numbers and therefore added less to the gene pools than they did in the far north. Another reason may be because most of them came to the northern lands first – through the Combed Ware Culture – and by the time they started spreading out into the rest of Europe they had already blended in with original European populations.

Many myths regarding the origins of Nordic-looking people (blonde hair, blue eyes, pale skin and relative tallness) have been associated with the Proto-Indo-Europeans, and most of these have long since been proven wrong.

  • The genetic marker for blue eyes developed somewhere in Europe during the last Ice Age, a long time before there were any Indo-Europeans, and while their ancestors dwelled in at least three different regions of the world – East Asia, Europe and the Middle East. The genetic marker for blue eyes cannot be pinpointed to any one particular group, but appears to have originally spread from one individual who happened to have a lot of descendants, whose descendants again branched out, particularly in Europe and the Middle East, where blue eyes are common to this very day. The blue eye genetic marker is not automatically connected to blondeness, tallness or fair skin.
  • Genetic markers for pale skin have occurred whenever people anywhere have been living in the northern hemispheres of the world for countless generations as a way of adapting to low levels of sun radiation. This is even true of the Neanderthals. When people moved into the northern lands, such as Finland and Scandinavia, a move that happened from about 12.000 years ago, they gradually developed even paler complexions than before.
  • Blondeness appears to have developed particularly in Finland and Scandinavia, while the rest of Europe mostly maintained the default setting for browner hair types.
  • Genetic markers for tallness have also existed in several places, but were indeed common to the Yamna – they were often taller than most of their neighbors. It is widely believed that the “typical” Nordic tallness was indeed inherited by the Indo-Europeans who entered northern Europe from about 4.000 years ago.

It appears that the original Proto-Indo-Europeans were relatively light-skinned, but were dark of hair and mostly of eyes too, however, genetic markers for tallness was very common among them and may account for the fact that many descendants are taller than the average height for humans, exempting several African peoples who also carry genetic markers for tallness (the first hominid that carried a genome for tallness was the Homo Erectus – only modern humans have ever since grown as tall as they did).

Extreme paleness, blondeness and blue eyes, however, did not come from them but developed separately, as different genetic markers (one marker for the blue eye color, many different markers for paleness, other markers for blondeness, yet other markers for height, although all of these markers together became common in the northern hemispheres after people began living where the ice caps had once covered everything.

Because of the studies of ancient genomes, we know for certain that the Yamna people began moving westwards into Europe some 5.000 years ago. Descendants of these people, along with descendants of the people that they met with and mingled and married into wherever they came, spread out into several different cultures speaking branches of Indo-European – languages sharing a common origin with the Yamna people as well as with other, unknown ancient languages of Europe and Asia. This spreading of branches is called the Indo-European Migration. It happened over a period of 2.000 years and was often a matter of migration, although it sometimes also took the form of invasion. In any case, in many of these places, these newcomers held such prominent positions that their language came to influence the old cultures or the new cultures resulting from this merging, to the point of leaving an Indo-European linguistic and – or – cultural legacy in large parts of Europe and southwestern Asia. In Europe, only Basque, Hungarian, Finnish, and Estonian may brag an older linguistic ancestry native to Europe prior to the Yamna expansion.

The Danube River Valley Culture

One of the earliest branches of Proto-Indo-European spread from the Yamna through the Danube River Valley into Europe and eventually ended up in Anatolia, where the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family was spoken by several tribes, some of whom became powerful nations, such as the Hittites. Other branches spread into Greece and other surrounding areas, speaking Thracian and Hellenic languages.

On their way, they encountered many different native European peoples whom they appear to have easily dominated, such as the Tripillya- Cucuteni in Ukraine and the Neolithic Egeian cultures of Greece and those of Anatolia, and finally, as late as the Bronze Ages, Indo-Europeans called the Mycenians coquered the last Egeian outpost; the Minoans.

The Corded Ware Culture

Between 4.900 and 4.350 BP (years before present), a period of less than 500 years, a distinct culture evolved in northern Europe; the Corded Ware Culture. This culture existed from the river Volga in the east to the river Rhine in the west, and covered the southernmost parts of Scandinavia and Finland as well.

The People They Met

It is believed that the Corded Ware Culture, descended from the Jamna, was the culture that introduced the Indo-European language forms here, particularly disseminating into the Germanic and the Balto-Slavic branches. The reason why such very different branches arose from the same culture during the same time is because the Corded Ware people, who spoke Yamna/Proto-Indo-European, met with different tribes who spoke different languages, from Volga in the east to the Rhine in the west, and they blended with these.

While dominating the realm between Volga and the Rhine, the Indo-European Corded Ware Culture replaced, culturally speaking, the earlier, native, agricultural Funnelbeaker Culture, but existed side by side with the older, native, hunter gatherer Pitted Ware Culture of Northern Europe. They also replaced, culturally speaking, the Pit Comb Ware culture of Finland and the Baltic regions and the Dnieper-Donets Culture and Samara Culture of Russia. As such, there were at least five different cultures of the northern lands that were affected by, and that changed radically because of, the Indo-European speaking Corded Ware Culture.

If we are to take a guess, the Germanic branch evolved from the fusion of the Yamna with the Megalithic/Neolithic Funnelbeaker culture, perhaps with some input from the Pitted Ware hunters. The Balto-Slavic branch may be the result of a fusion betweenthe Yamna and the Dnieper-Donets and the Samara peoples. The cultural fusion of Yamna and Pit Comb Ware people unusually enough led to the latter, original population retaining their Finnic language.

Others moved further to the south and the west and met with yet other people, blended with these too – and thus the Celtic and the Italic branches were born.

In Finland and surrounding areas, however, the older Finnic language remained dominant despite strong cultural influence from the Indo-European speaking populations. In Scandinavia, the Sámi peoples also maintained their Finnic languages. The Corded Ware Culture has also been known as the Battle-Axe Culture.

Sintashta & Bell Beaker Culture

Out of the Corded Ware Culture several different groupings of Indo-European origin spread from between 4.900 and 3.800 years ago:

  • To the east, a culture developed, known as the Sintashta. The Sintashta people were the ancestors of the Aryan branches of the Indo-European family; the Skythians (Iranian), the Persians (Iranian-Avestan) and the Vedic (Indo-Aryan) culture that finally claimed the older Indus Valley civilization.
  • To the west, alongside the evolution of Germanic and Slavic branches, yet another culture developed out of the Corded Ware culture; the Beaker Bell. It is considered the most important ancestor to the Celtic and Italic language families and spread into the Western and South-Western parts of Europe-
  • In Scandinavia and parts of southwest Finland, a Battle Axe culture evolved independently from the merging of the older tribes and the new. This led directly to the Nordic Bronze Age from which the Norse culture arose. Although covering parts of Finland and influencing the cultures there, Finnic peoples maintained their language completely.






Religious Tolerance in the Pagan North

As I read the accounts of Christian and Moslem visitors to the Heathen North during the 700ds AD, I keep being struck by the extreme discrepancy between the way they describe their feelings towards the Heathens, and the way they describe how they are actually treated by them.

Because, so far, without exception, these “civilized” visitors kept feeling that the Heathens are terrible, cruel, dangerous and stupid, ignorant people who will make them into martyrs at sight, but all the time they are actually treated with respect, generous hospitality, and extreme patience to the point of being endlessly humored by those terrible Heathens – no matter how badly they act.

Today I am going to tell the tale of two eager missionaries of the Medieval Church whose greatest ambition in life was to become martyrs for their faith, and one about a Moslem ambassador to Denmark during the Viking Age.


Believing that the most cruel forms of barbarian pagans were to be found in the Pagan North (a belief that has, somehow, lingered on to the present day), they sought out these northern barbarians and made it their utmost to provoke these cruel Heathens enough to get a good, proper execution worthy of a martyr.

Sounds crazy? Back in those days, it appears that the belief in an afterlife was a given, not something anybody really doubted. So, seeking a worthy death that would ensure you glory in the afterlife was a perfectly normal and sane attitide, both among Christians and among Pagans.

The problem of these would-be martyrs was, however, that the cruel barbarian Heathens had a nasty habit of being extremely tolerant both when it came to religious beliefs and when it came to the treatment of foreigners who were considered ambassadors – add to that an obvious tolerance towards the insane – because these missionaries were clearly considered mentally disordered.

St. Sabas the Goth

St. Sabas (Sava, Sabbas, Savva, Saba) the Goth (334-372AD) was born in the Buzau river valley and lived in  what is now the Wallachian region in Romania, which was Gothic territory at the time. The Arian bishop Wulfilas (Arian means a branch of Christianity which was later condemned as heretic by the Catholic Church) had preached Christianity among the Goths, and Sabas converted to the Arian Christian faith as a very young man. He was to become a martyr among the Goths – after a great deal of struggle to reach that status…

In the year 370, the Gothic king Athanaric set about to persecute the Christian parts of the Gothic population. They ordered religious ceremonies that the Christians would find unacceptable. In refusing to participate, the Christians would reveal themselves and, by spurning communal ritual state that they were neither part of the community nor interested in its well-being. This would bring down their Heathen neighbors enmity upon them, Athanaric thought.

One Gothic tribe decided to cheat their king at the ritual feast by giving their Christian tribesmen meat that had NOT been sacrificed to the gods, and thus would not upset the Christians. In this way, the Pagans protected and shielded their Christian kinsmen and tribal members.

But among these Christian tribesmen was Sabas, who refused to go along with the tribal deception and made at the feast a public statement of his belief, adding that anyone who did participate in the feast was not a proper Christian. The elders (one of the references to a council of elders in many Germanic communities) then threw him out of the village (because he was placing them all in danger, openly talking about how they were deceiving the King by protecting Christians against persecution, basically ratting them all out).

But Sabas soon returned to pester his village and set his fellow Christians at risk, for such was his great zeal for his faith. Another test feast was to be held and a persecutor was sent by king Athanaric to oversee the feast and detect Christians. Then the tribe communally swore an oath that there were no Christians in their midst (even if that was a lie). But Sabas, who could not suffer his kind to live and practice their faith in secret, strode into the meeting and openly revealed that the tribe had sworn falsely by declaring himself a Christian.

The persecutor asked the villagers whether Sabas was a rich man, and the tribe, still willing to protect their kinsman Sabas, declared that he was a poor fellow who owned nothing except the clothes he wore. The persecutor declared that Sabas was no threat to anyone and, rather than actually persecuting Sabas (although he is called “persecutor” throughout the story), he just had him expelled from the tribe once more.

Sabas was by now exasperated. All his dreams of becoming a martyr seemed to be thwarted. He waited eagerly for a new chance.

One of the king´s relatives, the “lawless bandit” Atharid, swooped on a village that had received Sabas among them after his expulsion with all his men (also called “lawless bandits”) during Easter, when Sabas and the local Christian priest were celebrating openly, putting the village that had taken him in at risk once more. Both were captured, and Sabas was beaten up and tied to the wheel of a wagon. Finally he was going to become a martyr after all.

But what do you know? One of the tribeswomen came to him during the night and untied him! But Sabas was determined to meet his glorious martyr end and refused to run away.

Atharid´s men captured him again the next morning without further ado, and tried to make him eat sacrificed meat. Sabas refused the food and claimed to be immune to pain. Athanarid did not follow Sabas hopeful little hint and did not torture him. He just told his men to go and drown him in the river Mousaios (The Buzau in Wallachia).

But not even Atharid´s “lawless bandits” seemed to wish for Sabas to die. As soon as they were out of sight of Atharid, they released Sabas and told him to get lost. But Sabas had had enough of all the kindness showed him by the sinful Heathens and insisted that the men carry out their orders. Reluctantly, the “lawless bandits” did what he said, and Sabas got his martyrdom after all.

Mad Martyrs

Sabas was a very zealous Christian who dreamed of nothing more than becoming a martyr. This was quite common in early Christianity – most of the saints that were established back then were martyrs, and their stories often belong to a category that I personally call “The Mad Martyrs” – because rather than being innocently persecuted as such, they sought persecution actively and went to great lengths to become martyrs – even by openly and publicly insult heathen chiefs and lords or commit sacrileges (destroying heathen “idols” and temples and rituals) – to the point where they would inevitably be put to death – and then become martyrs. If they lived in already Christian countries, they would volunteer to travel into Heathen territories only to commit acts of sacrilege against their Heathen customs, and at the same time demanding the right to preach and convert the people – which they usually got!

All the “Mad Martyr” stories are related in so-called “Passions”, and are told from the point of view of the martyr or those who sympathized with him. This Passion was meant to show how pious Sabas was, so that he had earned his title of Saint after his death (hence St.Sabas the Goth). This may seem utterly insane to us, and after a fashion it is.

However, the mentality showed in these passions gives me at least a clue as to how those Heathens who volunteered to become sacrificed may have thought. To the Mad Martyrs, becoming a martyr was a choice of career – it did not end in death but in eternal, glorious life as Saints! There was no doubt in their minds that life did not end with death.

In the same way we see how the slave concubine among the Rus, as described by eye-witness Ibn Fadlan, a woman slave who volunteered to be sacrificed and follow her master into his grave, and who firmly believed that she had hit the jackpot – by choosing this end, she would be released from slavery and enter the afterlife with glory, honor and a very high status, meet her family and friends etc.

To these people, life after death was a given, and could offer promising new options if one only chose a glorious exit to the present one.

And yet, by contemplating the way they were met and treated by others, and how much they had to struggle to become martyrs due to the kindness of those horrible Heathens – and yet continue to perceive the Heathens as horrible persecutors –  it becomes clear to me that:

  1. They were actually quite insane (hence “The Mad Martyr”)
  2. The Heathens who were insulted also deemed them insane
  3. The Heathens were generally very reluctant to punish an insane person for committing acts that were insane, even if they involved sacrilege (hence the great difficulties encountered by the men who eagerly wished to become martyrs).

Barbarian Tolerance

To me, the Passion of St.Sabas is in many ways a story that tells us of the kindness and compassion and solidarity that even the most dissident of tribal members were met with. Sabas keeps getting helped and protected, even when he is making it very difficult to help him – even when he keeps putting others at risk too.

Also, the insanity of his actions – clear to all who are not into the medieval martyr mindset – and the way people are reluctant to punish him for these – shows me a degree of sophistication and psychological depth understanding combined with kindness and loyalty to ones tribal members – even when they have been adopted into the tribe – the willingness to disobey the King, the persecutor and the royal bandit – all to protect a most ungrateful benefactor.

To round it all up – the Passions of the Mad Martyrs are highly interesting indirect reads about ancient Heathen cultures. It shows a degree of kindness, loyalty, and their deep acceptance of and compassion towards insane people and diversity that I think makes their world more tangible to us, more human, and less stereotypical.

Willibrord – Apostle to the Frisians

And it is not just because Sabas was a kinsman – for we see the same reluctance and kindness shown to other martyr-wannabes in pagan territories, such as Brother Willibrord from Northumbria (658-739 AD) who traveled to Frisia and Denmark in an attempt to convert the populations. Failing to become a martyr among the Frisians, on account of them being surprisingly kind to him all the time, Willibrord sought his fortune (that is, his glorious death) among the even more vicious Danes. And yet the Danes keep failing to even try and persecute him, so Willibrord travels on to a sacred island called Fosetiland (The Land of Forseti – a heathen Norse god of peace and justice mentioned also by Snorri), where he, after having his life saved by the Heathen priests there and accepted their kind hospitality, commits terrible sacrilege against the Heathen sanctuaries, knowing this to be punishable by death.

Willibrord (658 – 739) was a Northumbrian missionary saint, known as the “Apostle to the Frisians” in the modern Netherlands. Sponsored by the Frankish kings who wished to secure important trading routes away from the Heathen Danes by making the people who lived on these routes Christians, Willibrord was sent to Friesland first, trying to convert their king Radbod (the one who finally decided that he would rather be in Hell with his ancestors than in Heaven with his enemies the Franks), and then went into Denmark “at terrible peril for his life”…NOT, it would seem, although dear Willibrord keep insisting that this was very dangerous.

In the year 725 AD, Willibrord traveled from Friesland to Denmark. It was a dangerous journey, he claimed, but it was in fact danger that he sought – he had long been doing his missionary work in Friesland but found that it was too easy – not that he managed to convert many people, but he could see no hope of becoming a martyr among those Frisian Heathens, because oddly enough they refused to kill and torture him no matter how rudely he behaved towards them.

And so, in the hope of becoming a martyr, he traveled to the people thought to be the most barbaric and savage of them all – the Danes. Willbrord notices with astonishment that the savage and Heathen king Radbod did not even try to hinder him in travelling wherever he wanted to speak the word of God..! Why, they kept disappointing him whenever he expected them to persecute him, but he never stopped hoping!

Now Willibrord sought the Danish king Ongendus (probably Angantyr), and said that (I quote the words of Willibrord: …“he (Ongendus king) was grimmer than any wild beast and harder than any stone and yet (!) he treated the messenger of God and the Herald of Truth with respect.”

Uh…yes…this is in style with all that Willibrord writes. He keeps telling us how terrible and beastly the Heathens are, and yet how they fail to treat him with anything but hospitality and kindness and extreme, overbearing tolerance. As we shall see…

Willibrord asked the beastly and hard Danish king if he could spread his divine message among the Danes, and tried of course to also convert the king. Ongendus did not accept the faith, but saw no reason to stop him from trying to convert other Danes. Willibrord was even allowed to take thirty volunteering young boys with him to learn more about Christianity and the foreign languages, and to see if he could convert them. Willibrord accepted this generous offer, understanding that it would be far easier to convert Danes later if some of their own people could return, speaking their own language, and trying to convert their fellow Danes.

Willibrord´s return journey was dramatic. He went by sea, and a storm forced his ship to take refuge on an island called Fositeland (after the Norse god of justice and fairness, Forseti, who had a sanctuary on that island, which is probably the island Helgoland).On the island he found many Heathen temples that were so sacred they should not be touched. The sacred cattle that roamed free on the island must never be butchered and eaten, and nobody was allowed to bathe in the water-sources and lakes. The water on the island was so holy that even when taking water to drink one must do it with great reverence and in silence. These rules were carefully explained to the shipwrecked crew who were received and helped by those who guarded the island…

In absolute lack of gratitude for the island-priests´  help and hospitality and in absolute disrespect for anything Heathen, Willibrord now saw his opportunity to become a martyr after all – this was his expressed and foremost wish. And so he proceeded to baptize three men in one of the sacred water-sources, against all custom going into the water with them making a lot of noise, after which he also let butcher many of the holy cows and ate them.

He was very proud of his sacrilege, by the way. The Frisian King Radbod got to hear of the blasphemy on the island, and when Willibrord and his crew returned to Friesland, they could expect terrible punishment. They were indeed taken as captives and led to the Heathen king, who again failed to make Willibrord a martyr. Instead of persecuting all the guilty men, the king let them draw lots and executed one of them – and that one was not Willibrord. To his great disappointment.


Willibrord was not the only disappointed wannabe martyr in the North; he was followed by Ansgar, who also made a great effort to become a martyr in Sweden, but who was instead, disappointingly, allowed to build a church and convert whoever wished to become Christians.

Hundreds of years later, Adam of Bremen could reveal that one of the most horrible things that Christians had to go through in Pagan Sweden was that they had to pay a small fine for not participating in the annual sacrifices at Uppsala – a humiliating fate worse than martyrdom if we are to believe Adam.

Moving onwards to around 844 AD, we hear of the Spanish ambassador Al-Ghazal, a Moslem who visited Denmark. The Danes and other Norsemen traded a lot with the Moslem world both in the east and in the west, since the Moslems did not have any rules against trading with Heathens, which the Christians did. When Al-Ghazal came to the Heathen North, he looked so down on these filthy, Heathen barbarians that he feared more than anything that he would have to kneel down or bow deep before a Heathen barbarian king, the way he would have to kneel and bow before a Caliph. He heard that he would not have to kneel, but he hardly believed that, not knowing that the Norse people never knelt to anyone, hardly even to their gods.

But when he was to enter the house of the King, he discovered that the door was so low that one would in fact have to bow deep just in order to enter. Al-Ghazal did not bother to inquire as to why. If he had asked, he might have learned that all doors into important places were made this low as a matter of security – it would be very difficult to make an attack on a house if you had to bow down in order to enter – and it would be far easier for just one person with an axe to defend the entire house if those who had to enter had to do it one by one while bowing low. But all this escaped our civilized ambassador. He was convinced that the door was made thus low just to spite him after his request to not have to bow or kneel, and that they had put it there so that he would have to bow nevertheless. The world just centered around the ambassador, you see.

Now Al-Ghazal decided that he would outwit the wicked Danes. And so he sat down on his behind and shoved himself through the door in a seated position. The Danes just stared curiously at the crazy visitor. The King inquired, and when he learned the reason for the Spanish visitor´s act, he said; “If he had not been an ambassador, we would not have tolerated this from him.”

And that was all the retribution he got from those savage Heathens. Afterwards, Al-Ghazal was treated him with the utmost hospitality for the rest of his stay. Despite his civilized arrogance towards the barbarians who continued to treat him with a great deal more courtesy than he returned to them, Al-Ghazal has provided some very interesting entries into Danish culture, especially regarding the free-spoken and freewheeling Danish women, since he was amazed at the relative equality between the sexes and even more impressed by all the free sex, and wrote extensively about it.


The Seið-men of Warlock-Reef


The Saga of Ólaf Trygvason in Snorri Sturluson´s “Heimskringla” is an interesting medieval source to the Christening process in Norway during the late 9th century. Ólaf Trygvasson was not the first king who tried to convert the Norwegians, nor was he the last.

  • The first to try was Hákon the Good (920-961) who sought to convince his countrymen through deeds and friendship.
  • Then came Ólaf Trygvasson  (961-1000), who, according to the saga about him, appears to have used a great deal of Christian magic! When the people had gathered their best men to argue with the king at Parliament against the new religion, each one of them suffered from hoarseness and coughing and was not able to speak up. This way, Ólaf Trygvasson got his way… Add to that a severe persecution of all men who practiced witchcraft, an example of which I shall render below.
  • The last and most successful – and most ruthless one was Ólaf Haraldson (995-1030), known in his time as Ólaf Dígri (“The Huge”), but after his death during a battle against the pagan opposition as “Ólaf the Holy“.

But let us return to Ólaf Trygvason, and take a moment of silence for his distant relative, Eyvind Kelda and his men.  The following is an exerpt from  the Saga of Ólaf Trygvason by Snorri Sturluson.

Chapter 69: Seiðmanna brenna – “The Burning of the Seið-men”

Hugo Hamilton (1802-1871) Hall of the Seven Kings Burned by Ingjald

Ólaf King traveled to Tunsberg, and there he held Parliament again. He spoke at the Parliament, and said that anyone who were found guilty of performing galdr [incantations, spell-songs] or other deeds of witchcraft, or if they were seið-men, they should leave the country altogether, all of them. Then the king let search for such people in the neighboring counties, and invited them all to come to him.

They came there, and with them was a man named Eyvind Kelda (“Kettle”), and he was the grandson of Ragnvald Rettilbeini, son of Harald Hárfagri [by a Sámi mother. Ragnvald had also been a seið-man]. Eyvind was a seið-man and knew and awful lot of witchcraft.

Ólaf King let all these men gather in a hall, and he catered well to them, made a banquet for them, and let them have a lot of strong drink. And when they were thoroughly drunk, Ólaf let the hall burn, and the hall burnt with all the people inside there, except Eyvind Kelda, he managed to escape through the roof smoke-hole, and escaped.

When he had come far away, he met some people on the road, who were on their way to see the king. Eyvind asked them to tell the king this, that Eyvind Kelda had escaped the fire, and that he never again should submit to his power, and that he was going to do as before with his witchcraft. When these men came to Ólaf King, they told him what Eyvind had told them to say. The king said it was a bad thing that Eyvind was still alive.

Chapter 70: Dráp Eyvindar keldu – “The Murder of Eyvind Kelda”

1 Seidmennene-på-Skrattaskjær-1

The Seidmen of Skrattasker by Halfdan Egelius

As spring came, Ólaf went west into Víkinn (the Oslo fjord) and visited his estates, and he sent for all the people in Víkinn to let them know that he wanted to have an army out the next summer for the purpose of going to the northern parts of the country (Norway). Then he went to the north of Agder. When there was the long fast (Easter), he went north into Rogaland and came to Avaldsnes at Karmøy on Easter eve. There was prepared an Easter Banquet for him, and he had nearly 300 men.

The same night, Eyvind Kelda came there to the island, he had a longship and a full crew; all of them were just Seið-men and other sorts of troll-folks. Eyvind and his army disembarked and went ashore a long way from the ship, and started to perform their Seið.

Eyvind made his men invisible, and made such a black fog that the king and his people could not see them.

But when they came up to the farm at Avaldsnes, there was bright day all of a sudden. Then it turned out differently from what Eyvind had imagined; this darkness, which he had created with his magical cunning, clouded his own view and that of his comrades, so that they could not see more with their eyes than they saw with their necks.

The guardsmen of the king saw them, and they could not fathom what sort of people these were. The King was alerted, and he and his retinue got up and dressed. Then the king could see Eyvind and his men walking about there, and told his men that they should take weapons and go and find out what sort of people these were. The kingsmen recognized Euvind, and they captured him and all the others, and led them to the king. So Eyvind had to explain how everything had happened for him.

Afterwards, the king let all of them gather and placed them out on a reef that was known to be completely flooded with the high tide, and he bound them there. This way, Eyvind and all his men lost their lives.

Ever since, that reef has been known as Warlock Reef [Skrattasker].



Snorri´s Ancestral Stories about the “Men from Asia”

In Snorri Sturluson´s Prologue to the Prose Edda, as well as in his Ynglinga saga [the first chapter of Heimskringla, the Sagas of the Norwegian Kings], this Medieval Icelandic historian claimed that the Aesir, gods of the Norse pagan pantheon, in reality were ancestors from Asia who had once entered North-Western Europe and whose language, religion and societal structure came to dominate the northern lands.

In this article, I will provide you with the full texts in English translation, but firstly, an introduction to explain these texts better.

What Sources Did Snorri Have For His Ancestral Origin Stories?

Snorri did not invent these stories out of the blue. He based them on old poems about the origins of certain royal and noble lineages in Scandinavia, origin stories transmitted, celebrated and preserved by the members of these lineages themselves. These were the tales of the ancestral origins of great pagan royal lineages in Scandinavia who had long since claimed descent from the gods.

  • The noble lineages of the Háleygir and the Thronds of northern Norway, for example, claimed to be descended from Sæming, the son of Óðinn and Skaði.
  • The Skioldunga lineage that once ruled in Denmark, claimed descent from Skiold/Scyld, who in some sources was the son of Óðinn, and who was married to the goddess Gefion/Gefn [which is listed as one of the many names for Freyia].
  • The Ynglinga lineage, that once ruled in Uppsala and later came to rule in Norway, claimed descent from the god Freyr and the iotunn woman Gerðr.

The Ancestral Stories were a Part of Pagan Lore

Obviously, these tales of divine descent were important to the ruling clans of the Scandinavian tribes.

  • Firstly, they served to legitimize the ruling power of these lineages.
  • Secondly, they were a part of the mythology of the cult of Sacred Marriage in connection to kingship; the divine king had to marry a tribal fylgja/goddess in order to be inaugurated.
  • The stories fit neatly in with the fact that pagan people tended to worship some of their ancestors as if they were divine beings.

As such, origin stories involving the gods playing a role as human ancestors were a vital part of the official pagan cults of Scandinavian tribes.

They were not just invented by Snorri or other medieval chroniclers of history, as some have erroneously suggested.

They were not just a Christian invention meant to discredit the gods; they were very much a part of pagan lore, existing side by side with other myths in which the gods are clearly supernatural beings or even allegories of higher spiritual mysteries.

When Snorri told these stories, he may have added some [we know he added some] details and perspectives that made these stories fit better into a general Christian, Medieval worldview, and he may have emphasized the role of gods as human ancestors in order to take out a perceived threat to the new religion, but he certainly did base these stories on lore that he had heard and knew; lore that had been passed down through the generations.

This is why I think we, who are interested in pagan Norse lore, should take Snorri´s origin stories seriously even if we cannot vouch for all the geographical or personal or historical details. We do not have to (and should not!) blindly believe that Óðinn was in fact a man who traveled from the east – but we can recognize that some of our pagan ancestors certainly believed so, and that in reality, the Indo-European prototypes of Óðinn [alongside many other prototypes to Norse gods and the religion of the pagan Norse] originally came into northwestern Europe with migrations of people who came out of Asia – because they did.

And If you look at the structure of the stories, the general movement being described, you will start to see overwhelming similarities to a huge era of migration which actually did take place in European prehistory some 5-4000 years ago, an era of upheaval and change that actually led to the forming of a proto-Norse culture alongside many other cultures of Indo-European type. This is too interesting a coincidence to be overlooked, and there is good reason to believe that the lore of such past movements and migrations actually was a part of the Norse pagan worldview, even if Snorri may have added a little here and there.

Troy, Thrace or Dón River People

In both stories, Snorri claimed that the Aesir were “Men from Asia” who lived around the Black Sea area, but he seems to have had different sources as to whether they came from the southern or northern side of the Black Sea.

  • In the Prose Edda, Snorri claimed that the Aesir came from Troy [in Anatolia, today´s Turkey] and that they also had close connections to Thrace [Bulgaria mostly]
  • In the Ynglinga saga, he claimed that they were rather from the northern side of the Black Sea, but to the east of the river Dón, which provided the border between Europe and Asia.


Interestingly, both of the areas proposed were among the first areas settled by Indo-European people when they began migrating from their original homes of the mountains and steppes of West-Central Asia.

  • In Anatolia, their descendants became Hittites, Lydians and other Indo-European Anatolian peoples of the Bronze Age. Beginning as pastoral barbarian nomads, they adopted the civilized systems of people who already lived there before, and learned, among other things, how to write. Most of this did not happen until about 3.500 years ago [1.500 BC].
  • In Thrace, to the south of the Danube river, a mysterious, non-literate, barbarian Indo-European people came to be known as “Thracians” from around 2.700 years ago [700 BC].
  • To the northeastern side of the Black Sea, however, we know of a much older, more primitive Indo-European shepherding folk that we call the Jamna/Yamnaya, and who we now know constituted most of the people who were responsible for a massive migration from the southeast into northwestern Europe, beginning 5.000-4.000 years ago [3.000-2.000 BC], a long while before any of these groups became famous in Anatolia and Thrace.

Another interesting detail in Snorri´s story about the Don river Asians is the fact that they met a very powerful culture as soon as they crossed the river Don; the Vanir.

There was in fact a powerful culture existing on the western [European] side of the Don at the same time as the Jamna lived on the eastern [Asian] side; a culture that we today call the Cucuteni. The Cucuteni lived between the Don and the Danube rivers and had lasted for an incredible 2.000 years without interruption or any signs of warfare, and were a part of the Neolithic cultural complex known as “Old Europe“.  Old Europe consisted of several Neolithic village cultures situated in the eastern and southern parts of Europe from between 10.000 and 5.000 years ago (BP), that is, from between 8.000 and 3.000 BC. These cultures shared a symbolic language much focused on the female body and shape-changing themes, they were sedentary with large villages connected through trading routes, and could actually have been called a civilization depending on how that term is interpreted. They appear to have known very little hierarchy (“egalitarian”), were deeply religious or spiritual, and remarkably woman-friendly, and their most important deity was probably a goddess. 

Moving further west (Iberia) and north (Scandinavia), we see a Megalithic culture spreading during the same time as “Old Europe” existed, a culture that differed somewhat from their contemporaries of “Old Europe”, but which also shared many symbols and themes. Both cultures had largely sprung out of the Ice Age and Mesolithic cultures of Europe with added input from the Middle East at the start of the Neolithic, and both existed side by side with older hunter-gatherer cultures.

All three types of ancient European cultures were seriously challenged by migration waves from the east (West Asia) happening between 4.000-3.000 years ago (2.000-1.000 BC), when Indo-European shepherds from the steppes and mountains of the Caucasus and Caspian Sea area began moving westwards. The Cucuteni would have been the first to encounter these shepherds, and within 500-1.000 years, all the Old European and Megalithic peoples had changed radically into far more warlike, hierarchic and patriarchal cultures than they had been before, and in most places their languages were changed so drastically as to become members of the Indo-European language family. This also happened in Asia; similar groups of Indo-European shepherds moved south across the Caucasus and entered Anatolia, Iran, Pakistan and India.

Aesir and Cucuteni

Snorri as a Source to Pagan Lore

First of all, let us briefly present Snorri Sturlusson [1179-1241], our main source to pagan ancestral lore in Scandinavia.

Snorri was an Icelandic scholar, chief, historian and poet whose greatest legacies are the many sagas he wrote about ancestral lineages and kings of Norway as well as his Prose Edda, which basically sums up almost all the pre-Christian mythological material that had survived in folklore and in a body of Norse poetry known as Skaldic and Edda poetry. His Prose Edda is also a way of explaining the metaphorical, allegorical nature of Norse, pre-Christian poetry. Because of Snorri´s hard work, we are able to decipher and understand this ancient form of poetry, and because of his work, we know almost everything there still is to know about Old Norse mythology. Almost anything you know about Norse myths is thanks to Snorri Sturluson.

On what basis did Snorri know so much about pre-Christian mythology? By the year 1100, Old Norse paganism [Heiðindómr] had been conquered and suppressed by the Medieval, Catholic Church [Kristinndómr]. Even by then, paganism had been seriously challenged and probably changed a bit for more than a hundred years already. In the year 1000 AD, 50% of the Icelandic parliament voted for Christianity to be the official religion of Iceland, and after a deal of consideration, it was decided that the new religion should be the new official, public religion of the country, but the 50 % who wanted to continue worshipping the old gods were allowed to do so for another hundred years. In Norway, Christianity became strong after the 1030s while in Sweden, the Temple of Uppsala was destroyed and replaced by a church during the 1080s. Paganism was not outlawed in Iceland until about a hundred years after Christianity became the official religion, around 1100.

Snorri Sturluson, however, was born in 1179, a whole generation after paganism had been outlawed in all the Norse-speaking countries.

However, oral traditions were still strong, and Icelanders (perhaps due to descending from Norwegian exiles) took a deep interest in their past and their roots even back then. As soon as some Icelanders learned to write with Latin letters on leather manuscripts, they started to write down their countless stories of their ancestors – in their own language. They were conscious about showing the world that there was more to their past than just being robbers and bandits, and they still took some pride in their mythological, poetical traditions; even during the 11th century, pagan poetry was written down – manuscripts that Snorri had access to.

Additionally, Snorri and his peers could still speak to old people who remembered parents and grandparents who had been pagan, as he says in his introduction to the Heimskringla;

Ari also learned a lot from Turið, daughter of Snorri Góði [a Góði was the title of a pagan lawman and priest]; she was wise, and she remembered Snorri her father, and was about 35 years old when Christianity came to Iceland, and he died a year after the death of Ólaf the Holy.”

Ari was one of Snorri´s predecessors whose written works have been lost, but which were available to Snorri Sturluson. Ari had learned ancestral lore from Turið and other old people; Turið had learned from her father, who had been a pagan priest and lawman and remembered both the time before and after the conversion. As such, Snorri is a pretty good source to what the most knowledgeable and knowledge-seeking people of his time could still know about the recent, pagan past, a lore that was still very much alive during his lifetime. In his Prose Edda, which he wrote in 1225, he commented that “young people” are beginning to forget the myths that are basic to Norse poetry. This means that when he grew up, people were still very familiar with these myths.

Ancestral Lore of the Prose Edda [the Prologue]

I will skip the very first paragraph of Snorri´s Prologue, as it begins with a typical, Medieval, Christian take on everything non-Christian; claiming that, as people spread across the globe after the Exodus, they “forgot” the one true God – an explanation of pagan beliefs. This is clearly an addition to whatever may have been an original pagan ancestral story.

There are probably several other details that have been added with the expanding Medieval worldview that Snorri had also grown up with, but if we start to look at the structure of the story, it may still, I believe, actually be reflecting some ancient stories of real, prehistorical migrations that actually did lead to the beginning of Germanic and other Indo-European religious traditions. From the next paragraph, I shall render the entire story in full [in English translation]:

The Earth Goddess as Ancestral Mother

“One thing they wondered and pondered over: what it might mean, that the Earth [Jǫrð] and the beasts and the birds had one nature in some ways, and yet were unlike in manner of life. In this was their nature one: that the Earth was cleft into lofty mountain-peaks, wherein water spurted up, and it was not needful to dig longer for water there than in the deep valleys; so it is also with beasts and birds: it is equally far to the blood in the head and the feet.

Another quality of the Earth is, that in each year grass and flowers grow upon the Earth, and in the same year all that growth falls away and withers; it is even so with beasts and birds: hair and feathers grow and fall away each year.

This is the third nature of the Earth, that when she is opened and dug up, the grass grows straightway on the soil which is uppermost on the Earth. Boulders and stones they likened to the teeth and bones of living beings.

Thus they recognized that the Earth was quick, and had life with some manner of nature of her own; and they understood that she was wondrous old in years and mighty in kind: she nourished all that lived, and she took to herself all that died. Therefore they gave her a name, and traced the number of their generations from her.

The same thing, moreover, they learned from their aged kinsmen: that many hundreds of years have been numbered since the same Earth yet was, and the same Sun and stars of the heavens; but the courses of these were unequal, some having a longer course, and some a shorter.”

The Ancestors Figured Out the Idea of a Higher God

“From things like these the thought stirred within them that there might be some governor of the stars of heaven: one who might order their courses after his will; and that he must be very strong and full of might. This also they held to be true: that if he swayed the chief things of creation, he must have been before the stars of heaven; and they saw that if he ruled the courses of the heavenly bodies, he must also govern the shining of the Sun, and the dews of the air, and the fruits of the Earth, whatsoever grows upon her; and in like manner the winds of the air and the storms of the sea. They knew not yet where his kingdom was; but this they believed: that he ruled all things on Earth and in the sky, the great stars also of the heaven, and the winds of the sea. Wherefore, not only to tell of this fittingly, but also that they might fasten it in memory, they gave names out of their own minds to all things.

This belief of theirs has changed in many ways, according as the peoples drifted asunder and their tongues became severed one from another. But all things they discerned with the wisdom of the Earth, for the understanding of the spirit was not given to them; this they perceived, that all things were fashioned of some essence.”

Medieval  Geography

“The world was divided into three parts: from the south, extending into the west and bordering on the Mediterranean Sea,–all this part was called Africa, the southern quarter of which is hot, so that it is parched with the sun.

The second part, from west to north and bordering on the ocean, is called Europa or Eneá; its northern part is so cold that no grass grows upon it, and no man dwells there.

From the north and all down over the eastern part, even to the south, is called Asia. In that region of the world is all fairness and pride, and the fruits of the Earth’s increase, gold and jewels. There also is the centre of the Earth; and even as the land there is lovelier and better in every way than in other places, so also were the sons of men there most favored with all goodly gifts: wisdom, and strength of the body, beauty, and all manner of knowledge.”

The Trojans, Thor and Síf

“Near the Earth’s centre was made that goodliest of homes and haunts that ever have been, which is called Troy, even that which we call Turkland. This abode was much more gloriously made than others, and fashioned with more skill of craftsmanship in manifold wise, both in luxury and in the wealth which was there in abundance.

There were twelve kingdoms and one High King, and many sovereignties belonged to each kingdom; in the stronghold were twelve chieftains. These chieftains were in every manly part greatly above other men that have ever been in the world. One king among them was called Múnón or Mennón; and he was wedded to the daughter of the High King Priam, her who was called Tróán; they had a child named Trór, whom we call Thor [the Thunder god, always present in all Indo-European religions as a very important ancestral god].

He was fostered in Thrace by a certain war-duke called Lóríkus; but when he was ten winters old he took unto him the weapons of his father. He was as goodly to look upon, when he came among other men, as the ivory that is inlaid in oak; his hair was fairer than gold. When he was twelve winters old he had his full measure of strength; then he lifted clear of the Earth ten bear-skins all at one time; and then he slew Duke Lóríkus, his foster-father, and with him his wife Lórá, or Glórá, and took into his own hands the realm of Thrace, which we call Thrúdheim.

Then he went forth far and wide over the lands, and sought out every quarter of the Earth, overcoming alone all berserks and giants, and one dragon, greatest of all dragons, and many beasts. In the northern half of his kingdom he found the prophetess who was called Sibyl, whom we call Sif, and wedded her. The lineage of Sif I cannot tell; she was fairest of all women, and her hair was like gold.

Their son was Lóridi, who resembled his father; his son was Einridi, his son Vingethor, his son Vingener, his son Móda, his son Magi, his son Seskef, his son Bedvig, his son Athra (whom we call Annarr), his son Ítermann, his son Heremód, his son Skjaldun (whom we call Skjöld), his son Bjáf (whom we call Bjárr), his son Ját, his son Gudólfr, his son Finn, his son Fríallaf (whom we call Fridleifr); his son was he who is named Vóden, whom we call Óðinn: he was a man far-famed for wisdom and every accomplishment. His wife was Frígídá, whom we call Frigg.”

Of Óðinn

“Óðinn had second sight, and his wife also; and from their foreknowledge he found that his name should be exalted in the northern part of the world and glorified above the fame of all other kings. Therefore, he made ready to journey out of Turkland, and was accompanied by a great multitude of people, young folk and old, men and women; and they had with them much goods of great price. And wherever they went over the lands of the Earth, many glorious things were spoken of them, so that they were held more like gods than men. They made no end to their journeying till they were come north into the land that is now called Saxland; there Óðinn tarried for a long space, and took the land into his own hand, far and wide.

In that land Óðinn set up three of his sons for land-wardens.

One was named Vegdeg: he was a mighty king and ruled over East Saxland; his son was Vitgils; his sons were Vitta, Heingistr’s father, and Sigarr, father of Svebdeg, whom we call Svipdagr.

The second son of Óðinn was Beldeg, whom we call Baldr: he had the land which is now called Westphalia. His son was Brandr, his son Frjódigar, [whom we call Fródi], his son Freóvin, his son Uvigg, his son Gevis [whom we call Gave]. Óðinn’s third son is named Sigi, his son Rerir. These the forefathers ruled over what is now called Frankland; and thence is descended the house known as Völsungs. From all these are sprung many and great houses.”

Óðinn´s Journey to the North

“Then Óðinn began his way northward, and came into the land which they called Reidgothland; and in that land he took possession of all that pleased him. He set up over the land that son of his called Skjöld, whose son was Fridleifr;–and thence descends the house of the Skjöldungs: these are the kings of the Danes.

And what was then called Reidgothland is now called Jutland.

After that he went northward, where the land is called Sweden; the king there was named Gylfi. When the king learned of the coming of those men of Asia, who were called Æsir, he went to meet them, and made offer to them that Óðinn should have such power in his realm as he himself wielded. And such well-being followed ever upon their footsteps, that in whatsoever lands they dwelt were good seasons and peace; and all believed that they caused these things, for the lords of the land perceived that they were unlike other men whom they had seen, both in fairness and also in wisdom.”

Aesir Prologue 2

Óðinn´s New Order

“The fields and the choice lands in that place seemed fair to Óðinn, and he chose for himself the site of a city which is now called Sigtún. There he established chieftains in the fashion which had prevailed in Troy; he set up also twelve head-men to be judges over the people and to judge the laws of the land; and he ordained also all laws as, there had been before, in Troy, and according to the customs of the Turks.

After that he went into the north, until he was stopped by the sea, which men thought lay around all the lands of the Earth; and there he set his son over this kingdom, which is now called Norway. This king was Sæmingr; the kings of Norway trace their lineage from him, and so do also the jarls and the other mighty men, as is said in the Háleygjatal.”

A New Language

“Óðinn had with him one of his sons called Yngvi, who was king in Sweden after him; and those houses come from him that are named Ynglings. The Æsir took wives of the land for themselves, and some also for their sons; and these kindreds became many in number, so that throughout Saxland, and thence all over the region of the north, they spread out until their tongue, even the speech of the men of Asia, was the native tongue over all these lands.

Therefore men think that they can perceive, from their forefathers’ names which are written down, that those names belonged to this tongue, and that the Æsir brought the tongue hither into the northern region, into Norway and into Sweden, into Denmark and into Saxland. But in England there are ancient lists of land-names and place-names which may show that these names came from another tongue than this.”


As we can see, Snorri here offered a Medieval explanation of the spread of the Indo-European language family a long time before there even was such a concept; his take was clearly based on his studies of history and language and was not at all far from the historical truth. For more on the Indo-European spread into Europe, go here.


Now to the other Ancestral Origin Story. In his Ynglinga saga, Snorri tells the tale of how the Aesir came to Scandinavia via Russia and Saxland [Sachsen] and introduced their new religion and societal system.

Incidentally, this story also provides one of our most important written sources to Óðinn as a seið-man and shaman.


Ynglinga Saga or The Story of the Ynglinga Family from Óðinn to Halfdan the Black


“It is said that the earth’s circle which the human race inhabits is torn across into many bights, so that great seas run into the land from the out-ocean. Thus it is known that a great sea goes in at Nörvasund [“The Narrow Strait” = Gibraltar], and up to the land of Jerusalem.

From the same sea a long sea-bight stretches towards the north-east, and is called the Black Sea, and divides the three parts of the earth; of which the eastern part is called Asia, and the western is called by some Europa, by some Enea.  Northward of the Black Sea lies Swithiod the Great, or the Cold [=Siberia/Russia].

The Great Swithiod is reckoned by some as not less than the Great Serkland [The Islamic Caliphate with base in Baghdad]; others compare it to the Great Blueland [Africa].  The northern part of Swithiod [Siberia] lies uninhabited on account of frost and cold, as likewise the southern parts of Blueland [Africa] are waste from the burning of the sun.

In Swithiod [Siberia] are many great domains, and many races of men, and many kinds of languages.  There are giants, and there are dwarfs, and there are also blue men [dark-skinned people], and there are any kinds of stranger creatures.  There are huge wild beasts, and dreadful dragons.  On the south side of the mountains which lie outside of all inhabited lands runs a river through Swithiod, which is properly called by the name of Tanais [Don], but was formerly called Tanaquisl, or Vanaquisl, and which falls into the Black Sea.

The country of the people on the Vanaquisl [Don river] was called Vanaland, or Vanaheim; and the river separates the three parts of the world, of which the eastermost part is called Asia, and the westermost Europe.”



2. OF THE PEOPLE OF ASIA. [The New Religion of the Aesir/Vanir]

“The country east of the Tanaquisl [Don river] in Asia was called Ásaland, or Asaheim, and the chief city in that land was called Ásgarðr.  In that city was a chief called Óðinn, and it was a great place for sacrifice.  It was the custom there that twelve temple priests should both direct the sacrifices, and also judge the people.

They were called Diar, or Drotner, and all the people served and obeyed them.  Óðinn was a great and very far-travelled warrior, who conquered many kingdoms, and so successful was he that in every battle the victory was on his side.  It was the belief ofhis people that victory belonged to him in every battle.  It was his custom when he sent his men into battle, or on any expedition, that he first laid his hand upon their heads, and called down a blessing upon them; and then they believed their undertaking would be successful.  His people also were accustomed, whenever they fell into danger by land or sea, to call upon his name; and they thought that always they got comfort and aid by it, for where he was they thought help was near. Often he went away so far that he passed many seasons on his journeys.”


“Óðinn had two brothers, the one called Ve, the other Vili, and they governed the kingdom when he was absent.  It happened once when Óðinn had gone to a great distance, and had been so long away that the people Of Asia doubted if he would ever return home, that his two brothers took it upon themselves to divide his estate; but both of them took his wife Frigg to themselves.  Óðinn soon after returned home, and took his wife back.”


“Óðinn went out with a great army against the Vanaland people; but they were well prepared, and defended their land; so that victory was changeable, and they ravaged the lands of each other, and did great damage.  They tired of this at last, and on both sides appointed a meeting for establishing peace, made a truce, and exchanged hostages.

The Vanaland people sent their best men, Njǫrðr the Rich [in mythology, he was the god of winds and waves], and his son Freyr [in mythology, he was the god of growth, sex and fertility, cultivated nature and government/order].

The people of Ásaland sent a man called Hænir [in mythology, he was the god who gave the gift of thought to men and women], whom they thought well suited to be a chief, as he was a stout and very handsome man; and with him they sent a man of great understanding called Mímir [“Memory” – in mythology, he is the giant who guards the well of Memory].

On the other side, the Vanaland people sent the wisest man in their community, who was called Kvasir [in mythology, he is the embodiment of divine wisdom].

Now, when Hænir came to Vanaheim he was immediately made a chief, and Mímir came to him with good counsel on all occasions.  But when Hænir stood in the Parliaments or other meetings, if Mímir was not near him, and any difficult matter was laid before him, he always answered in one way –

“Now let others give their advice”;

so that the Vanaland people got a suspicion that the Ásaland people had deceived them in the exchange of men. They took Mímir, therefore, and beheaded him, and sent his head to the Ásaland people.

Óðinn took the head, smeared it with herbs so that it should not rot, and sang incantations over it.  Thereby he gave it the power that it spoke to him, and discovered to him many secrets.  Óðinn placed Njǫrðr and Freyr as priests of the sacrifices, and they became Diar of the Ásaland people.

Njǫrðr’s daughter Freyia [in mythology, she is the goddess of fate, death, seið (magic, shamanism, oracular divination), love, wild nature and initiation mysteries) was priestess of the sacrifices (blótgyðja), and she was the one who first taught the Ásaland people the art of seiðr, as it was in use and fashion among the Vanaland people.

While Njǫrðr was with the Vanaland people he had taken his own sister in marriage, for that was allowed by their law; and their children were Freyr and Freyia.  But among the Ásaland people it was forbidden to intermarry with such near relations.”

[It has been speculated that Njǫrð´s unnamed and forgotten sister/wife may have been identical to the goddess Nerthus described as the mother goddess of the Germanic Suebi tribes of the Iron Age. “Nerthus” is a Latinized form of a Germanic name that may have been Njerðr or Njórunn – a feminine variant of the masculine name Njǫrðr. Unless it was true as Snorri claimed,  that the three Vanir gods were adopted into the Aesir pantheon, while the older goddess was left behind with her native people, this is probably the case].

Aesir spread in Scandinavia Ynglinga saga


“There goes a great mountain barrier from north-east to south- west, which divides the Greater Swithiod from other kingdoms [the Caucasus]. South of this mountain ridge it is not far to Turkland, where Óðinn also had great possessions.

In those times the Roman chiefs went wide around in the world, subduing to themselves all people; and on this account many chiefs fled from their domains.  But Óðinn having foreknowledge, and magic-sight, knew that his posterity would come to settle and dwell in the northern half of the world.

He therefore set his brothers Vé and Víli over Ásgarðr; and he himself, with all the gods and a great many other people, wandered out, first westward to Garðariki [Russia], and then south to Saxland.

He had many sons; and after having subdued an extensive kingdom in Saxland, he set his sons to rule the country.  He himself went northwards to the sea, and took up his abode in an island which is called Odense [Óðinn´s Ey = “Odin´s Island”] in Fyn [Funen].

Then he sent Gefion [in terms of the Norse language, Gefion (“The Provider”) is identical to Gefn, who was listed as one of the many names for Freyia. She was now an Aesir goddess of Vanir origin] across the sound to the north to discover new countries; and she came to King Gylfi, who gave her a ploughgate of land.  Then she went to Jotunheim, and bore four sons to a giant, and transformed them into a yoke of oxen.  She yoked them to a plough, and broke out the land into the ocean right opposite to Óðinns.  This land was called Zealand, and there she afterwards settled and dwelt.

Skjold, a son of Óðinn, married her, and they dwelt at Lejre (Hleiðargarðr). Where the ploughed land was is a lake or sea called Great Lake.  In the Swedish land the fjords of Great Lake (Mälaren) correspond to the nesses in Zealand” [Snorri must have gotten this part of the legend wrong; The only Swedish lake that could possibly have looked like it could have been the water version of Zealand, and thus inspire this sort of legend, is the far bigger lake Väneren, possibly meaning “Vanir Lake”].

Aesir abode


Bragi the Old sings thus of it: —

     "Gefion from Gylfi drove away,
     To add new land to Denmark's sway --
     Blythe Gefion ploughing in the smoke
     That steamed up from her oxen-yoke:
     Four heads, eight forehead stars had they,
     Bright gleaming, as she ploughed away;
     Dragging new lands from the deep main
     To join them to the sweet isle's plain.

Now when Óðinn heard that Parliaments were in a prosperous condition in the land to the east beside Gylfi; he went thither, and Gylfi made a peace with him, for Gylfi thought he had no strength to oppose the people of Ásaland.

Óðinn and Gylfi had many tricks and enchantments against each other; but the Ásaland people had always the superiority.

Óðinn took up his residence at the Great Lake (Mälaren) lake, at the place now called Old Sigtun. There he erected a large temple, where there were sacrifices according to the customs of the Ásaland people.  He appropriated to himself the whole of that district, and called it Sigtun.  To the temple priests he gave also domains.  Njǫrðr dwelt in Noatun, Freyr in Upsal, Heimdal in the Himinbergs, Thor in Thrudvang, Balder in Breidablik; to all of them he gave good estates.”


“When Óðinn of Ásaland came to the north, and the Diar with him, they introduced and taught to others the arts which the people long afterwards have practiced.  Óðinn was the cleverest of all, and from him all the others learned their arts and accomplishments; and he knew them first, and knew many more than other people.  But now, to tell why he is held in such high respect, we must mention various causes that contributed to it.

When sitting among his friends his countenance was so beautiful and dignified, that the spirits of all were exhilarated by it, but when he was in war he appeared dreadful to his foes.  This arose from his being able to change his skin and form in any way he liked.  Another cause was, that he conversed so cleverly and smoothly, that all who heard believed him.  He spoke everything in rhyme, such as now composed, which we call skaldskáp(bard-craft/poetry).

He and his temple priests (Hófgóðar) were called song-smiths (ljóðasmíðir), for from them came that art of song into the northern countries.

Óðinn could make his enemies in battle blind, or deaf, or terror-struck, and their weapons so blunt that they could no more but than a willow wand; on the other hand, his men rushed forwards without armor, were as mad as dogs or wolves, bit their shields, and were strong as bears or wild bulls, and killed people at a blow, but neither fire nor iron told upon themselves.  These were called Berserker.”


“Óðinn could transform his shape: his body would lie as if dead, or asleep; but then he would be in shape of a fish, or worm, or bird, or beast, and be off in a twinkling to distant lands upon his own or other people’s business.

With words alone he could quench fire, still the ocean in tempest, and turn the wind to any quarter he pleased.  Óðinn had a ship which was called Skidbladnir, in which he sailed over wide seas, and which he could roll up like a cloth.

Óðinn carried with him Mímir’s (Memory´s) head, which told him all the news of other countries.  Sometimes even he called the dead out of the earth, or set himself beside the burial-mounds; whence he was called the ghost-sovereign (draugardrótinn), and lord of the hanged (hangadrottin).

He had two ravens, to whom he had taught the speech of man; and they flew f)ar and wide through the land, and brought him the news.  In all such things he was pre-eminently wise.

He taught all these arts in Runes, and songs which are called galdrar (incantations), and therefore the Ásaland people are called incantation-smiths (galdrasmiðir). 

Óðinn understood also the art in which the greatest power is lodged, and which he himself practiced; namely, what is called seiðr (A Norse form of magic, oracular divination, witchcraft, shamanism).

By means of this he could know beforehand the predestined fate of men, or their not yet completed lot; and also bring on the death, ill-luck, or bad health of people, and take the strength or wit from one person and give it to another. But after such witchcraft followed such weakness and anxiety, that it was not thought respectable for men to practice it; and therefore the priestesses were brought up in this art.

Óðinn knew finely where all missing cattle were concealed under the earth, and understood the songs by which the earth, the hills, the stones, and mounds were opened to him; and he bound those who dwell in them by the power of his word, and went in and took what he pleased.  From these arts he became very celebrated.  His enemies dreaded him; his friends put their trust in him, and relied on his power and on himself.  He taught the most of his arts to his priests of the sacrifices (blótgóðar), and they came nearest to himself in all wisdom and witch-knowledge.  Many others, however, occupied themselves much with it; and from that time seiðr spread far and wide, and continued long.

People sacrificed to Óðinn and the twelve chiefs from Ásaland, and called them their gods, and believed in them long after.  From Óðinn’s name came the name Audun, which people gave to his sons; and from Thor’s name comes Thore, also Thorarinn (“The Thunder Warrior”); and also it is sometimes compounded with other names, as Steinthor, or Hafthor, or even altered in other ways.”


“Óðinn established the same law in his land that had been in force in Ásaland.  Thus he established by law that all dead men should be burned, and their belongings laid with them upon the pile, and the ashes be cast into the sea or buried in the earth.  Thus, said he, every one will come to Valhalla with the riches he had with him upon the pile; and he would also enjoy whatever he himself had buried in the earth.

For men of consequence a mound should be raised to their memory, and for all other warriors who had been distinguished for manhood a standing stone; which custom remained long after Óðinn’s time.  On winter day there should be blood-sacrifice for a good year, and in the middle of winter for a good crop; and the third sacrifice should be on summer day, for victory in battle.  Over all Swithiod the people paid Óðinn a scatt or tax — so much on each head; but he had to defend the country from enemy or disturbance, and pay the expense of the sacrifice feasts for a good year.”


“Njǫrðr took a wife called Skaði; but she would not live with him and married afterwards Óðinn, and had many sons by him, of whom one was called Sæming; and about him Eyvind Skaldaspiller sings thus: —

     "To Asa's son Queen Skaði bore
     Sæming, who dyed his shield in gore, --
     The giant-queen of rock and snow,
     Who loves to dwell on earth below,
     The iron pine-tree's daughter, she
     Sprung from the rocks that rib the sea,
     To Óðinn bore full many a son,
     Heroes of many a battle won."

To Sæming, Earl Hakon the Great reckoned back his pedigree.  This Swithiod they called Mannheim, but the Great Swithiod they called Godheim; and of Godheim great wonders and novelties were related.”


What follows then is an anecdote of how the gods, one after the other, die, how they are buried, and how people began to worship them as gods ever after. I have related this part in another article about The Temple of Uppsala.

Eventually, only Freyia is still alive of the gods, and she continues the rituals, and before the story of Freyr´s descendants, the Ynglingar, really begins, the first part about the Aesir/Vanir gods concludes;


“When it became known to the Swedes that Freyr was dead, and yet peace and good seasons continued, they believed that it must be so as long as Freyr remained in Sweden; and therefore they would not burn his remains, but called him the god of this world, and afterwards offered continually blood-sacrifices to him, principally for peace and good seasons.”


What is really being told here, is the genesis of a religion. We do not know to what extent Snorri based his knowledge on real ancestral stories, and to what extent he figured it out (or imagined) on his own, based on the general Medieval higher education of his time.

But we do know that the story has an underlying, basic structure echo; a story that perfectly fits the slow but steady, millennium-long expansion of the Indo-European Jamna people into Europe by way of Cucuteni territory, while other Indo-European groups went south into Iran and Anatolia.

And if that parallel echo is not purely coincidental, then what we may have in Snorri´s work is whatever pieces then remained of an ancestral legend reaching back thousands of years, and which, truthfully or not, attempts to explain the origin of their own religion.

Most religions have that sort of origin myth.


Article About Ancient European Migrations here.


Gefion and her bulls – Danish statue


After the Ice – Maps of Early European Migrations

During the last Ice Age, the Paleolithic cultures of Europe were naturally barred from the Asian part of the Eurasian continent by the large ice sheets, the Ural mountains, a Caspian Sea three times larger than what it is today, the Caucasus mountains and the Black Sea which poured into the Meditterranean with a much broader flow. Only through Anatolia (Turkey) and through small paths south of the Urals could people enter, and enter they did in three major waves; one happening 50.000 years ago, another 35.000 years ago, and the last, a mere 20.000 years ago.

More or less half of all Europeans today descend directly from these first Ice Age Europeans, and we all carry about 50 % of their DNA. The rest stems from later migrations into Europe, particularly the Indoeuropean kind.

Of languages, it is possible that Proto-Uralic (the ancestor of Finnic and Ugric languages such as Hungarian) was a part of the easternmost European languages of the Ice Age. It is also possible that Basque descend from a proto-Iberian language.

On the Asian side of the Urals/Caucasus were people who may have been Proto-Indoeuropeans. Proto-Turks also lived much further east than most of them do today. To the southeast were people who may have been Proto-Sumerians, and others who spoke Proto-Afro-Asiatic languages (the ancestors of Old Egyptians and Semitic languages).

After the Ice Migrations during

Here is a map picturing the cultural regions associated with particular language families and their origins (the “Proto-language”).  It is unknown exactly what languages were spoken in Europe prior to the Indoeuropean expansion because these languages went extinct eventually. All European languages possess words and forms descended from these extinct languages, as they blended with the new languages that were to come later.

Doggerland was a piece of land between England and Denmark/Norway that emerged after the ice sheets receded, but which then got flooded. The Doggerland people were among the earliest migrants into Scandinavia after the Ice Age, just as they were among the first to settle Brittannia.

After the Ice Language groups

The next map shows from what regions the first Scandinavians emerged:

  1. The Ice Age Iberian culture that had survived after the Magdalenian culture got dispersed into several tribes. People from Iberia migrated first into the new land that had emerged from the ice, Doggerland, and from then into Denmark and Norway.
  2. The Danube river culture
  3. The Balkan/ Don river culture
  4. Uralic culture with added genomes from East Asia (Proto-Mongolian).

In all modern Scandinavians, there are some traces of each of these ancestors. The East Asian input is particularly evident among the Sámi, as it is among other Finno-Ugric groups such as the Samoyedic peoples of Siberia.

After the Ice Age migrations

During the Neolithic,  many different and quite expansive, stable and long-lasting cultures emerged in Europe. This happened just as the Indoeuropean Jamna/Yamnaya culture group emerged just to the east of the border between Europe and Asia, north of the Black Sea and the Caucasus.

While the European Neolithic peoples were largely sedentary, agricultural and remarkably peaceful compared to later eras, the Indoeuropean Yamnaya was a shepherding, nomadic culture just like their Semitic neighbours to the south of the Caucasus, and just as the latter would challenge the early civilizations of the Middle East and North Africa, so the Indoeuropeans would challenge the cultures of Old Europe and of the Indus Valley civilization. People who lived further to the north in Scandinavia and Finland remained hunter-gatherers for a long time still.

After the Ice Neolithic cultures

The next map shows the Indoeuropean expansion through archaeology; how the Yamnaya culture expanded and influenced a new culture that was to dominate in Northern Europe, often called the Beaker Bell culture, the Corded Ware culture, or the Battle Axe culture. These were the people who eventually brought the Indoeuropean language structure into Scandinavia and many other places in Europe.

After the Ice migrations

The next map shows the expansion of Indoeuropean language branches into Europe, Iran, Pakistan and India (at the cost of what had been before). For the most part, the Indoeuropeans adopted any cultural system that they encountered; In southeast Europe and Asia, they simply took over the previous civilizations; in northwestern Europe they made do with the somewhat more barbarian forms of life that they found there, and which they were used to. They took dominating positions, married the local women and influenced language and religion and societal structure, to what degree appears to have varied depending on the strength of the previous culture that they tried to dominate.

Some of the Indoeuropan brances are now extinct, such as the Anatolian. Many Indoeuropean groups moved into Anatolia (present day Turkey), and spoke “Anatolian” languages, but these went extinct as their cultures crumbled and gave way to Turkic peoples who came later. The majority of European languages today, as well as a great number of Asian languages such as Hindi, Urdu and Iranian, are Indoeuropean of origin.

After the Ice Indoeuropean migration

The main branches of the Indoeuropean language family.:

  • Indo-Iranian
  • Anatolian (extinct)
  • Albanian
  • Hellenic
  • Italic
  • Celtic
  • Germanic
  • Slavic
  • Balto-Slavic


The Temple of Uppsala

The Royal Mounds of Uppsala

Old Uppsala is situated a few kilometers north of the modern city of Uppsala in Sweden,  not far from another Old Norse site, Old Sígtuna. It is famous for having been an important pagan cultic center, and for its three great burial mounds that are astronomically aligned and oriented towards important ritual dates. No one knows exactly what purpose these mounds served, but their orientation fits exactly into a tradition of astronomical alignment in Swedish passage graves and burial mounds that reaches back to at least 3300 BC.


The mounds of Uppsala, like Swedish passage graves, are oriented towards where the sun sets on the 3rd of November and the 8th of February. The Pagan new year happened after the first new moon after the 21st of October, so that the first full moon of the new year would happen around the 4th of November. Three lunar months later, on the 8th of February, the sun would again set in the direction to which the mounds were oriented. Three lunar months later, on the 29th of april, the sun would rise in the exact opposite direction. All the dates were connected to important Pagan festivals, among them the annual  nine-day celebration of the dísir (goddesses), whose associated market is still held today.

The present mounds in Uppsala, however, are dated only back to the sixth century AD. However, they appear to have been constructed on top of much older sanctuaries.

There are two opposing but ancient traditions, possibly based on much older, oral traditions about these mounds. In one of the traditions, the mounds belong to the Aesir gods. In another, they belong to three famous kings of the Ynglinga lineage.

Neither of these traditions have been confirmed by archaeological finds, so their true, original meaning may be lost to us. But folklore and legend have lives of their own and are as much a part of the history of Uppsala as the forgotten people who were actually buried in the great mounds.

The Mounds of the Gods


One of the two traditions is a long-lived folkloristic myth about the three mounds containing the remains of the three most popular, pagan Norse gods; Odin, Thor and Freyr. This folklore is based on a very old tradition found in the saga literature where the Aesir gods originally were human ancestors, or perhaps gods who once walked the earth like human beings. 

The opinion that the pagan gods had once been human ancestors prevailed in Medieval Europe. It may have been based on earlier, pagan oral traditions about ancient migrations which actually did happen (because they did, and is the reason why so many European languages belong to the Indoeuropean family), and it may have been based on an actual observation: that the pagans tended to worship their own human ancestors as gods.

In his Gesta Danorum (The History of the Danes), Saxo wrote:

“At this time there was one Odin, who was credited over all Europe with the honor, which was false, of godhead, but used more continually to sojourn at Uppsala, and in this spot…he vouchsafed to dwell with somewhat especial constancy…Also Frey, the regent of the gods, took his abode not far from Uppsala, where he exchanged for a ghastly and infamous sin-offering the old custom of prayer by sacrifice, which had been used by so many ages and generations. For he paid to the gods abominable offerings, by beginning to slaughter human victims.”


Of the origins of Sígtuna and Uppsala as the seat of the Aesir ancestors, Snorri wrote in his Ynglinga saga:


“Odin took up his residence at the Mälaren lake, at the place now called Old Sigtun.There he erected a large temple, where there were sacrifices according to the customs of the Asaland people. He appropriated to himself the whole of that district, and called it Sigtyn. To the temple priests he gave also domains….  He (Odin) taught most of his (magical) arts to his priests of the sacrifices, and they came nearest to himself in wisdom and witch-knowledge. Many others, however, occupied themselves much with it, and from that time witchcraft spread far and wide, and continued long. People sacrificed to Odin and the twelve chiefs from Asaland, and called them their gods, and believed in them long after….Odin established the same law in his land that had been in force in Asaland…

“For men of consequence, a mound should be raised to their memory, and for all other warriors who had been distinguished for manhood a standing stone; which custom remained long after Odin’s time. On winter day there should be blood-sacrifice for a good year, and in the middle of winter for a good crop; and the third sacrifice should be on summer day, for victory in battle. Over all Swithiod the people paid Odin a scatt or tax — so much on each head; but he had to defend the country from enemy or disturbance, and pay the expense of the sacrifice feasts for a good year.”

“Odin died in his bed in Swithiod; and when he was near his death he made himself be marked with the point of a spear, and said he was going to Godheim, and would give a welcome there to all his friends, and all brave warriors should be dedicated to him; and the Swedes believed that he was gone to the ancient Asgaard, and would live there eternally. Then began the belief in Odin, and the calling upon him. The Swedes believed that he often showed to them before any great battle. To some he gave victory; others he invited to himself (by making them die in battle); and they reckoned both of these (both winning and dying) to be fortunate.”

“Odin was burnt, and at his pile there was great splendour. It was their faith that the higher the smoke arose in the air, the higher he would be raised whose pile it was; and the richer he would be, the more property that was consumed with him.”


“Njord of Noatun was then the sole sovereign of the Swedes; and he continued the sacrifices, and was called the drot or sovereign by the Swedes, and he received taxes and gifts from them. In his days were peace and plenty, and such good years, in all respects, that the Swedes believed Njord ruled over the growth of seasons and the prosperity of the people. In his time all the diar or gods died, and blood-sacrifices were made for them. Njord died on a bed of sickness, and before he died made himself be marked for Odin with the spear-point.

The Swedes burned him, and all wept over his grave-mound.”


“Frey took the kingdom after Njord, and was called drot by the Swedes, and they paid taxes to him. He was, like his father, fortunate in friends and in good seasons.”

“Frey built a great temple at Upsal, made it his chief seat, and gave it all his taxes, his land, and goods. Then began the Upsala domains, which have remained ever since. Then began in his days the Frode- peace; and then there were good seasons, in all the land, which the Swedes ascribed to Frey, so that he was more worshipped than the other gods, as the people became much richer in his days by reason of the peace and good seasons.”

“His wife was called Gerd, daughter of Gymis, and their son was called Fjolne. Frey was called by another name, Yngve; and this name Yngve was considered long after in his race as a name of honour, so that his descendants have since been called Ynglinger.”

“Frey fell into a sickness; and as his illness took the upper hand, his men took the plan of letting few approach him. In the meantime they raised a great mound, in which they placed a door with three holes in it.”

“Now when Frey died they bore him secretly into the mound, but told the Swedes he was alive; and they kept watch over him for three years. They brought all the taxes into the mound, and through the one hole they put in the gold, through the other the silver, and through the third the copper money that was paid.
Peace and good seasons continued.”


“Freya alone remained of the gods, and she became on this account so celebrated that all women of distinction were called by her name, whence they now have the title Freya; so that every woman is called freya, or mistress over her property, and the wife is
called the house-freya. Freya continued the blood-sacrifices. Freya had also many other names.”


These old sagas  about the Aesir ancestors arriving from the southeast and introducing their language, their religion and their societal structure may reflect orally transmitted ancestral sagas of people who brought the Aesir/Vanir gods with them into Scandinavia.  On the other hand, these stories could also have served other purposes.

If we are to consider the attitudes of our two most important medieval chroniclers of pagan history, Snorri and Saxo, we could speculate that for Snorri´s part, presenting the gods as ancestors first could have been a good way of making the pagan gods and their myths acceptable to a Christian audience. We know that he had another, less outspoken agenda too; namely to preserve the knowledge of poetical metaphors in mythology to the point where we may “understand that which has been subtly composed”, as he suggested. In this way, the legends of the gods as ancestors served as a disguise.

Saxo, who displays a profound distaste for anything pagan, could have grasped at the chance to ridicule the people whom the pagans had so foolishly believed to be divine.

However, both of them based this approach to the gods on older traditions that we do not know, it appears that this way of looking at pagan lore was perfectly common. We also know that ancestral worship to the point where ancestors were sometimes perceived as gods or as identical to more famous gods of the pantheons, was common. Already in pagan times, the gods may have been perceived both as ancestors and as gods in their own right, both at the same time. The saga writers may simply have emphasized their aspects as ancestors rather than their importance as the gods of an earlier religion. In this way, they could freely write about both their myths and their ancestral legends.

It should be said that whereas  Snorri claimed that the gods had been buried in large mounds at Uppsala, he never directly identified the three large mounds of Uppsala as the ones belonging to the gods – that tradition has been a folkloristic belief. And Snorri also mentioned at least three Ynglinga kings who were “mound-laid” at Uppsala:

The Mounds of the Kings

Burial Mounds

Another legend says that the three mounds belonged to three of the greatest Ynglinga kings, a tradition that fits better with the actual age of these mounds. The kings in question were Aun, Adils and Egill, and the mounds were often called Aun’s MoundAdil’s Mound and Egil’s Mound.

According to the Ynglinga saga chapter 25, Aun the Old died of extremely old age without sickness, after his death he was “mound-laid” (interred into a barrow) at Uppsala.

In chapter 26, Aun´s son Egill became king of Svíthiód after him, and Snorri wrote;

“the king only lived a short while, and he is mound-laid in Uppsala.”

In chapter 28, Egill´s grandson Adils died of a fatal accident:

“King Adils was at the Dísablót (Sacrifice to the Goddesses) and rode his horse around the Dísarsal (The Hall of the Goddess); the horse stumbled beneath him, and the king fell forwards, his head struck a stone so hard his head broke and his brains ran out on the stone, this was his bane; he died at Uppsala and was mound-laid there.”


In 1874 the East and the West mound were first excavated, apparently showing only that those buried there had been influential and prominent people, but otherwise little is known about them. Another excavation in 1926 suggested the existence of large constructions. Modern archaeology has shown that there are traces of two different large constructions at Uppsala – one dating back to the Bronze Age, another that seems to be a Viking Age feasting hall.

The Eastern Mound – or “Odin´s Mound” – turned out to be the burial of a woman – or a woman and a man – rather than that of a king. The dead had been given precious objects, mostly of the domestic type, although a decorated helmet was found, and the walls had been decorated with bronze panels, showing among other things a dancing warrior. The Western Mound – or “Thor´s Mound” belonged to that of a warrior chieftain, and held the remains of the man himself, animals, among them a hunting falcon, and precious weapons.  The Middle Mound – or “Freyr´s Mound”, has not been excavated.

Since I wrote this piece, there have been new excavations at Uppsala. Information about the new research is soon to be published, and the “Gamla Uppsala Museum” already provides some information here.


The Historical Importance of Uppsala

People have lived at and been buried in Old Uppsala since the Bronze Ages. The area was scattered with burial mounds – originally almost 3000 mounds were counted. Today only 250 remain, the others having given way to farmland and quarries.  From the 3rd century AD onwards, we know that Old Uppsala was an important religious, economic and political center in Scandinavia. It was the residence of royalty, the Swedish kings being referred to as the “king at Uppsala”.

It was also the ancient location of the Swedish parliament or general assembly (the “Thing of all Swedes”), where all free men would gather to vote throughout the Viking Age.

The assembly was held in conjunction with a fair called Dísting (“The Assembly of the Goddesses”) and a pagan celebration called the Dísablót (“Sacrifice to the Goddesses”).

Moreover, it was the residence of a large temple shrouded in mystery. The Temple has been referred to by the name Uppsala (Upper Halls) in medieval texts, and in one description believed to be based on eyewitness accounts by terrified Christian visitors from Germany during the early 11th century, the gods worshipped in that temple was Odin, Thor and Freyr.

However, we also know of a building at Uppsala called the Dísarsalinn – “The Hall of the Goddess.” Interestingly, while the term Dísablót and Dísating clearly relates the word for goddess in genitive plural, the term Dísarsal applies the singular form of the word goddess.

This means that the Hall of the Dís concentrates on the one goddess, while the sacrifice and the parliament was dedicated to all the goddesses. That goddesses and other female supernatural beings appear as a collective is extremely common in Norse mythology, likewise it is common that one of the goddesses stands out to represent all of them. Even the word “dís” for goddess/ female supernatural being has an interesting link; it is etymologically derived from Old Indian Dhisana, a goddess of knowledge and wisdom guarding the sacred Soma, and who could either take the form of one single goddess, or else appear as countless different dhisanas.

We also know that Norse kings went through initiation rituals that included a ritual of Sacred Marriage, a symbolic marriage to the goddess of the land, and the goddess of the tribe (the tribal Fylgja/follower). The king needed the approval of the goddess, and his marriage to her also symbolized his “marriage” to the people. In the Saga of Hákon the Good, the people who had gathered at annual parliament in Norway threatened to “divorce” themselves from the king should he force his Christian faith upon them.

At the Annual “Sacrifice to the Goddesses”, before opening the general national Assembly, the king was expected to ride in a circle around the Hall of the Goddess – a procedure that was studied by everyone because any failure in this ritual conduct was seen as a bad omen. 

There is little doubt that Uppsala was a major cultic centre in pagan times, and after the great Temple was burned and destroyed by the Christian king Inge Steinkillson in 1087 AD, it became the site of a church and the Archbishopric of Sweden. The place itself appears to have been modelled on pagan mythological worlds.


Old Uppsala lies on the Fyrisvellir, or Fyris Wolds, a cultivated plain in the valley of the river Fyris. The name Fyris is derived from the Old Norse fyrva, which meant “to ebb”, referring to the marshes where people would have to leave their ships in order to walk to the Temple and the royal halls. In skaldic poetry, gold, which appears to be a metaphor for divine wisdom, was often referred to with the kenning “the seed of the Fyris Wolds”.

The Fyrisvellir is often referred to in old legends and sagas, mainly as a place of a few famous battles from the fifth century onwards. One of these legends relates the story of the love between Hagbard and Signy, a legend that in its structure follows a very typical Old Norse storyline where the hero or heroes fight with the brother of the heroine, and the battle takes place at the Fyrisvellir. The princess heroine represents a valkyrie who follows her beloved hero into death when her kinsmen decide to murder him. Hagbard, the hero, receives the “horn of death” – a poisonous mead – by the hands of his beloved´s mother, the queen, but sees through the guile and throws the mead into her face. He is later hanged, and Signy, the heroine, together with all her maidens, commit suicide by hanging themselves in a burning house. The legend concludes with Hagbard´s joy at his beloved´s faithfulness.

The story may seem insignificant, but it is not – it fits right into a whole body of stories – myths and legends – that deal in essence with initiation rituals that I have discussed in most of my work, particularly in The Maiden with the Mead. And this legend is one of the many legends that distinctly links the site of the Uppsala Temple with this ancient ritual structure in Old Norse mythology.


Temple of Uppsala

Adam of Bremen wrote of the temple at Uppsala in condemning manner; the problem with many medieval sources is the fact that Christian scholars were either genuinely apalled by pagan cults, or else sought to slander and smear them, but there are certainly many elements of truths in his account:


“At this point I shall say a few words about the religious beliefs of the Swedes. That nation has a magnificent temple, which is called Uppsala, located not far from the city of Sigtuna. In this temple, built entirely of gold, the people worship the statues of three gods.

A general festival for all the provinces of Sweden is customarily held at Uppsala every nine years. Participation in this festival is required of everyone. Kings and their subjects, collectively and individually, send their gifts to Uppsala; – and – a thing more cruel than any punishment – those who have already adopted Christianity buy themselves off from these ceremonies. The sacrifice is as follows; of every kind of male creature, nine victims are offered. By the blood of these creatures it is the custom to appease the gods. Their bodies, moreover, are hanged in a grove which is adjacent to the temple. This grove is so sacred to the people that the separate trees in it are believed to be holy because of the death or putrefaction of the sacrificial victims. There even dogs and horses hang beside human beings. (A certain Christian told me that he had seen seventy-two of their bodies hanging up together.) The incantations, however, which are usually sung in the performance of a libation of this kind are numerous and disgraceful, and it is better not to speak of them.”

In the scolia, there is an additional description:

“Near that temple is a very large tree with widespread branches which are always green both in winter and summer. What kind of tree it is nobody knows. There is also a spring there where the pagan are accustomed to perform sacrifices and to immerse a human being alive. As long as his body is not found, the request of the people will be fulfilled. A golden chain encircles that temple and hangs over the gables of the building. Those who approach see its gleam from afar off because the shrine, which is located on a plain, is encircled by mountains so situated as to give the effect of a theatre. For nine days feasts and sacrifices of this kind are celebrated. Every day they sacrifice one human being in addition to other animals, so that in nine days there are 72 victims which are sacrificed. This sacrifice takes place about the time of the vernal equinox.”

During the full moon that occurred between 28th of January and 26th of February, an important ritual would take place for nine days and nights, devoted to the dísir, the goddesses. There was a temple of the Dís, the Goddess, that served as a focal point of this ritual. It was a grand, public event and the kings and the chiefs were expected to partake in the ritual. We know very little of the ritual itself except that it included sacrifice and that the king was expected to consecrate the site by riding a circle around the Temple of the Goddess.

A dísting is still held in Sweden at Old Uppsala, an annual market named after the Pagan Disating, the Assembly of the Goddesses. Here, the aristocracy would meet to hold parliament, just like the gods of the myths held parliament at the Well of Origin, the abode of the fate-goddesses. The Assembly was held in conjunction with the Dísablót, the Sacrifice to the Goddesses, and there were celebrations and a grandpubliv fair or market associated with it – the latter tradition surviving unto this day.

Snorri describes the custom in his Heimskringla from 1225 AD:

“In Sweden, it was the old custom, as long as heathenism prevailed, that the chief sacrifice took place in Goe month at Uppsala. Then sacrifice was offered for peace, and victory to the king; and thither came people from all parts of Sweden. All the Assemblies of the Swedes, also, were held there, and markets, and meetings for buying, which continued for a week; and after Christianity was introduced into Sweden, the Assemblies and fairs were held there as before. After Christianity had taken root in Sweden, and the kings would no longer dwell in Uppsala, the market-time was moved to Candlemas, and it has since continued so, and it lasts only three days .”


There was a well-developed and prosperous society around the Uppsala Mounds during the Iron Age, the kings had their estate here and the Swedes gathered here to worship

Snorri wrote that Freyr had built the Temple of Uppsala as his abode. Freyr was the most important deity in Sweden, and said to be the ancestor of the royal lines there:

Freyr built a great temple at Upsal, made it his chief seat, and gave it all his taxes, his lands, and goods. Then began the Upsal domains, which have remained ever since. But after Freyr was buried under a cairn at Upsala, many chiefs raised cairns, as commonly as stones, to the memory of their relatives.

Snorri´s older contemporary, the Danish scholar Saxo Grammaticus, confirms the notion that Freyr was said to have established the center of Uppsala:

Also Freyr, the regent of the gods, took his abode not far from Uppsala, where he exchanged for a ghastly and infamous sin-offering the old custom of prayer by sacrifice, which had been used by so many ages and generations. For he paid to the gods abominable offerings, by beginning to slaughter human victims.

Saxo was, as one may notice, less than favorably inclined towards the Pagan gods. He continues to tell the story of the hero Starkad who came to Uppsala and was appalled:

“…because when stationed at Upsala, at the time of the sacrifices, he was disgusted by the effeminate gestures and the clapping of the mimes on the stage, and by the unmanly clatter of bells.”

As disgusted as Saxo was, we may read something valuable from his information – that there was at Uppsala a mime-stage. The mime stage means that it is possible that myths were played – reenacted – like in what could have been Mystery Plays. The actors or the participants appear to have been playing music, dancing or moving in a way that to an outsider of the New School of continental, Christianized machismo were “effeminate” and “unmanly”.

In some of my works I have discussed the transition of gender roles that seems to have played a part in the myths and perhaps also in the rituals. Initiates like Thor and Helgi and Odin, at least, would don the garments of women and pretend to be serving maids, witches or even brides in order to reach their goals. This was a powerful transcession of gender roles that was designed perhaps to humiliate, perhaps to challenge the self-importance of the initiate, or else in order to access some power that had to do with femininity.

If we take another look at what Adam of Bremen writes, we see another hint to Uppsala sanctuary being modeled as a stage:

Those who approach see its gleam from afar off because the shrine, which is located on a plain, is encircled by mountains so situated as to give the effect of a theatre.

What sort of stage? 

Near that temple is a very large tree with widespread branches which are always green both in winter and summer. What kind of tree it is nobody knows. There is also a spring there where the pagan are accustomed to perform sacrifices and to immerse a human being alive. As long as his body is not found, the request of the people will be fulfilled. A golden chain encircles the temple and hangs over the gables of the building.

In fact, the descriptions of Uppsala as a theater, as a stage, also suggest strongly that this stage was modeled after the mythical realms of the gods, of Ásgard at the Well of Origin.

Moreover, the temple is said to be all golden, surrounded by a golden chain that glimmers and shines and might be seen from afar. This is exactly how the Hall of the Maiden is described in the myths. It is also standing on a plain surrounded by mountains. In the myths we have seen how the heroes ascend mountains in order to see into the the great land. We learn about the Resplendid Fields, the Crystal Fields and so forth.

People travel far and wide to get to the temple, just as the initiates have to travel long distances to get there. The rituals last for nine days and nights, just as the initiation lasts for the same duration of time. There is a grove dedicated to a sacred tree and a lake which can only resemble the World Tree or the Tree of Memory and the Well of Origin. According to Adam of Bremen, the lake is used for a drowing sacrifice, which was the kind of sacrifice that have been connected with goddess worship at least since the Iron Age. Tacitur, writing in the first century AD described how people were sacrificed to the Great Mother of the Gods, Nerthus, by drowing in a lake. Snorri, in his Prose Edda, describes the Well of Origin as a place where anyone who lets themselves be submerged will come out transparently white and shining, transformed into a light being.

Moreover, three gods are associated with the temple. The three burial mounds at the site were said in folklore to belong to Odin, Freyr and Thor. Adam of Bremen also later identifies the idols of the three gods as belonging to Odin, Freyr and Thor, and that Freyr was, indeed, situated in the middle wearing a huge erect phallus.

The hanging rituals described bring to mind the fact that Odin was initiated by hanging on the World Tree, and that other initiates were facing death, sacrificing and even becoming the sacrifice themselves in order to reach the Underworld from which they would be resurrected. Brit Solli has suggested that the hanging ritual was real and that the hanging may have been undertaken in such a way that the initiate would not actually die, but rather reach a state of trance and ecstacy – a possible feat indeed. The chroniclers describe rituals that would lead to actual death, but then the chroniclers were Christians who did not actually know the true purpose or events of the rituals, and who would see it as their mission to show how terrible and disgusting the Pagan practice was.

It is interesting to note that the only animals Adam identifies are the horse and the dog – both creatures closely associated with the Underworld journey in the myths. Perhaps they were sacrifices so that their spirits would accompany the inititiate – or else the human sacrifice –  on their way?

If the Edda myths constituted, as I believe, the heritage of a Mystery Cult, then the cult itself could have had its great central seat at Upsala, where all the major themes of the quest for immortality shown in the myths could, indeed, be performed and reenacted.

Uppsala truls-arnvidssons-karta