This post is not an article, but consists only of quotes from two important historical written sources, contemporary to the events described: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles (ASC) and The Royal Frankish Annals (RFA)

The Saxon Wars

775 (RFA): «While the king spent the winter at the villa of Quierzy, he decided to attack the treachereous and treaty-breaking tribe of the Saxons and to persist in this war until they were either defeated and forced to accept the Christian religion or entirely terminated

776 (RFA): «In great terror all the Saxons came to the source of the River Lippe, converging there from every point they surrendered their land to the Franks, put up security, promised to become Christians, and submitted to the rule of the Lord King Charles and the Franks (…) The Saxons came there with wives and children, a countless number, and were baptized and gave as many hostages as the Lord King demanded.»

777 (RFA): «All the Franks gathered there and from every part of Saxony came the Saxons, with the exception of Widukind, who was in revolt along with a few others. He fled with his companions into Nordmannia (…) Many Saxons were baptised and according to their custom pledged to the king their whole freedom and property if they should change their minds again in that detestable manner of theirs and not keep the Christian faith and their fealty to the Lord King Charles…»

778 (RFA): «When the Saxons heard that the Lord King Charles and the Franks were so far away in Spain, they followed their detestable custom and again revolted, spurred on by Widukind and his compaions (…) With the help of God the Fraks had the victory. A great number of Saxons were slain, and those who escaped returned to Saxony in utter disgrace.

779 (RFA): «…a campaign was launched into Saxony.»

782 (RFA): (THE MASSACRE AT VERDEN): «As soon as he (Charlemagne) returned (to Francia), the Saxons, persuaded by Widukind, promptly rebelled as usual (…) Then all the Saxons came together again, submitted to the authority of the Lord King, and surrendered the evildoers who were chiefly responsible for this revolt to be put to death – four thousand five hundred of them. This sentence was carried out. Widukind was not among them since he had fled into Nordmannia.»

783 (RFA): «Since the Saxons had revolted again, the Lord King Charles conducted a campaign into Saxony (…) An immense number of Saxons were slain at this place so that only a few escaped from flight.»

784 (RFA): «The Saxons rebelled as usual and some Frisians along with them (…) (Charlemagne) entered Saxony and went here and there devastating the countryside (…)»

785 (RFA): «(Charlemagne) routed the Saxons who had rebelled, captured their castles, broke through their fortifications, and held the roads open until the right hour struck. Then he (…) marched through all of Saxony wherever he wished, on open roads and with nobody putting up any resistance (…) he sent for Widukind and Abbi and had both brought before him (…)There Widukind and Abbi were baptized with their companions. The whole of Saxony was then subjugated



A.D. 787 (ASC): This year King Bertric took Edburga the daughter of Offa to wife.  And in his days came first three ships of the Northmen from the land of robbers.  The reve then rode thereto, and would drive them to the king’s town; for he knew not what they were; and there was he slain.  These were the first ships of the Danish men that sought the land of the English nation.


A.D. 793 (ASC): (LINDISFARNE) This year came dreadful fore-warnings over the land of the Northumbrians, terrifying the people most woefully: these were immense sheets of light rushing through the air, and whirlwinds, and fiery, dragons flying across the firmament. These tremendous tokens were soon followed by a great famine: and not long after, on the sixth day before the ides of January in the same year, the harrowing inroads of heathen men made lamentable havoc in the church of God in Holy-island, by rapine and slaughter.  Siga died on the eighth day before the calends of March.

793 (RFA): «At that point a messenger brought the news that the Saxos had again broken faith»



A.D. 794 (ASC): This year died Pope Adrian; and also Offa, King of Mercia, on the fourth day before the ides of August, after he had reigned forty winters.  Ethelred, king of the Northumbrians, was slain by his own people, on the thirteenth day before the calends of May; in consequence of which, Bishops Ceolwulf and Eadbald retired from the land.  Everth took to the government of Mercia, and died the same year.  Eadbert, whose other name was Pryn, obtained the kingdom of Kent; and Alderman Ethelherd died on the calends of August.  In the meantime, the heathen armies spread devastation among the Northumbrians, and plundered the monastery of King Everth at the mouth of the Wear. There, however, some of their leaders were slain; and some of their ships also were shattered to pieces by the violence of the weather; many of the crew were drowned; and some, who escaped alive to the shore, were soon dispatched at the mouth of the river.

794 (RFA): «The Saxons gathered in the plain called Sindfeld and prepared for battle. But when they heard that they were surrounded on both sides, God frustrated their intentions, and they promised, with no such thing in mind, to become Christians and be loyal to the Lord King.»


More Saxon Rebellions

A.D. 795 (ASC): This year was the moon eclipsed, between cock-crowing and dawn, on the fifth day before the calends of April….

795 (RFA): «The Saxons gave hostages in the preceding summer and swore oaths, as they were ordered to, but the king did not forget their treachery (…) When (Charlemagne) heard that the Saxons had, as usual, broken their promise to accept Christianity and keep faith with the king, he entered Saxony with an army (…) Once the Saxons had been soundly beaten, their country laid waste, and their hostages received, the king returned to Gaul…»


796 (RFA): «The Lord King marched through Saxony with his entire host and then returned to Gaul»

797 (RFA): «A campaign was launched into Saxony and pursued beyond swamps and pathless places as far as the ocean (…) the king accepted the submission of the whole Saxon people….»

A.D. 797 (ASC): This year the Romans cut out the tongue of Pope Leo, put out his eyes, and drove him from his see; but soon after, by the assistance of God, he could see and speak, and became pope as he was before.  Eanbald also received the pall on the sixth day before the ides of September, and Bishop Ethelherd died on the third before the calends of November.


798 (RFA): «….at the very time of Easter the Nordliudi («Northern Tribes» of Saxons) who live beyond the Elbe rose in rebellion and took prisoner the royal envoys who had gone to obtain satisfaction from them. They executed some of the Franks on the spot and held the others for ransom…. With the others they also put to death Godescal, the king´s envoy, whom the king (Charlemagne) a few days before had sent to Sigifrid, king of the Danes (Sigurd Ring, Ragnar Lódbrok´s father). (…) (Charlemagne) laid waste the whole of Saxony (…) I this year the star called Mars could not be seen anywhere in the entire sky from July of the preceding year to July of this year.»

800 (RFA): «(Charlemagne) built a fleet on this sea, which was then infested with pirates» (Vikings and Saracens)

804 (RFA): «At the same time Godofrid, king of the Danes (Gudröd the Hunter King), came with his fleet and the entire cavalry of his kingdom to Schleswig on the border of his kingdom and Saxony. He promised to show up for a conference with the emperor (Charlemagne was now Holy Roman Emperor), but was made wary by the counsel of his men and did not venture any closer. Instead, he communicated through his envoys whatever he wanted to say. The emperor (…) sent an embassy to Godofrid to discuss the return of fugitives» (Saxon refugees had found asylum in Denmark along with sympathy and displays of support, such as the rising aggression of Danes and Viking fleets).


A.D. 807 (ASC): This year was the sun eclipsed, precisely at eleven in the morning, on the seventeenth day before the calends of August.

808 (RFA): «…Godofrid, the king of the Dabes, with his army had crossed into the land of the Obodrites, he (Charlemagne) sent his son Charles with a strong host of Franks and Saxons to the Elbe, with orders to resist the mad king if he should attempt to attack the borders of Saxony.

Godofrid set up quarters on the shore for some days and attacked….

809 (RFA): «A conference was held with Danish nobles beyound the Elbe…»


A.D. 812 (ASC):  This year died the Emperor Charlemagne, after a reign of five and forty winters; and Archbishop Wulfred, accompanied by Wigbert, Bishop of Wessex, undertook a journey to Rome


A.D. 832 (ASC): This year heathen men overran the Isle of Shepey.

A.D. 833 (ASC): This year fought King Egbert with thirty-five pirates at Charmouth, where a great slaughter was made, and the Danes remained masters of the field.



Consciousness of the Importance of Recording Historical Events

«It is many men´s opinion that to write about the settling of land in Iceland is knowledge of little importance, but we (the editors) believe that if we know with certainty the truth about our ancestors, then we may more easily counter the mockery of foreigners who claim that we descend from slaves and bandits.

And for those who wish to know ancient transmissions and how to trace clan lineages, it is better to start with the beginning than to enter in the middle.

In any case, all civilized nations wish to know about the origin of their own society and about the creation of their own clan.»


The Historical Consciousness of the Heathen ancestors


About the historical consciousness of the Heathen ancestors, Saxo Grammaticus wrote:

«And I would not have it forgotten that the more ancient of the Danes, when any notable deeds of mettle had been done, were filled with emulation of glory, and imitated the Roman style; not only by relating in a choice kind of composition, which might be called a poetical work, the roll of their lordly deeds; but also by having graven upon rocks and cliffs, in the characters of their own language, the works of their forefathers, which were commonly known in poems in the mother tongue (…)

Moreover, how many histories must we suppose that men of such genius would have written, could they have had skill in Latin and so slaked their thirst for writing!

Men who though they lacked acquaintance with, the speech of Rome, were yet seized with such a passion for bequeathing some record of their history, that they encompassed huge boulders instead of scrolls, borrowing rocks for the usage of books.

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Nor may the pains of the men of Thule be blotted in oblivion; for though they lack all that can foster luxury (so naturally barren is the soil), yet they make up for their neediness by their wit, by keeping continually every observance of soberness, and devoting every instant of their lives to perfecting our knowledge of the deeds of foreigners. Indeed, they account it a delight to learn and to consign to remembrance the history of all nations, deeming it as great a glory to set forth the excellences of others as to display their own. (…)»


About the historical consciousness of the Heathen ancestors, Snorri Sturluson wrote:

«Thjodolf of Hvin was the skald of Harald Harfager, and he composed a poem for King Rognvald the Mountain-high, which is called “Ynglingatal.” This Rognvald was a son of Olaf Geirstadaalf, the brother of King Halfdan the Black. In this poem thirty of his forefathers are [2] reckoned up, and the death and burial-place of each are given. He begins with Fjolner, a son of Yngvefrey, whom the Swedes, long after his time, worshipped and sacrificed to, and from whom the race or family of the Ynglings take their name.

Eyvind Skaldaspiller also reckoned up the ancestors of Earl Hakon the Great in a poem called “Haleygjatal,” composed about Hakon; and therein he mentions Sæming, a son of Yngvefrey, and he likewise tells of the death and funeral rites of each. The lives and times of the Yngling race were written from Thjodolf’s relation enlarged afterwards by the accounts of intelligent people.

As to funeral rites, the earliest age is called the Age of Burning; because all the dead were consumed by fire, and over their ashes were raised standing stones. But after Frey was buried under a cairn at Upsala, many chiefs raised cairns, as commonly as stones, to the memory of their relatives.

The Age of Cairns began properly in Denmark after Dan Milkillate had raised for himself a burial-cairn, and ordered that he should be buried in it on his death, with his royal ornaments and armour, his horse and saddle-furniture, and other valuable goods; and many of his descendants followed his example. But the burning of the dead continued, long after that time, to be the custom of the Swedes and Northmen. Iceland was occupied in the time that Harald Harfager was the King of Norway.


Ale's Stones, a megalithic monument in southern Sweden, resembles a stone ship built of 59 large sandstone boulders, weighing up to 1.8 tons each.

Ale’s Stones, a megalithic monument in southern Sweden, resembles a stone ship built of 59 large sandstone boulders, weighing up to 1.8 tons each.

There were skalds in Harald’s court whose poems the people know by heart even at the present day, together with all the songs about the kings who have [3] ruled in Norway since his time; and we rest the foundations of our story principally upon the songs which were sung in the presence of the chiefs themselves or of their sons, and take all to be true that is found in such poems about their feats and battles: for although it be the fashion with skalds to praise most those in whose presence they are standing, yet no one would dare to relate to a chief what he, and all those who heard it, knew to be a false and imaginary, not a true account of his deeds; because that would be mockery, not praise.»

The Medieval Self-Conscious Approach

About his own contemporary (early 13th century) approach as a chronicler, Saxo writes:

«In the footsteps of these poems, being as it were classic books of antiquity, I have trod; and keeping true step with them as I translated, in the endeavour to preserve their drift, I have taken care to render verses by verses; so that the chronicle of what I shall have to write, being founded upon these, may thus be known, not for a modern fabrication, but for the utterance of antiquity; since this present work promises not a trumpery dazzle of language, but faithful information concerning times past. (…)

Their stories, which are stocked with attestations of historical events, I have examined somewhat closely, and have woven together no small portion of the present work by following their narrative, not despising the judgment of men whom I know to be so well versed in the knowledge of antiquity. And I have taken equal care to follow the statements of Absalon, and with obedient mind and pen to include both his own doings and other men’s doings of which he learnt; treasuring the witness of his August narrative as though it were some teaching from the skies.»


About the historical approach of recent or contemporary Icelandic chroniclers and their sources, Snorri wrote:

«In this book I have had old stories written down, as I have heard them told by intelligent people, concerning chiefs who have held dominion in the northern countries, and who spoke the Danish tongue; and also concerning some of their family branches, according to what has been told me. Some of this is found in ancient family registers, in which the pedigrees of kings and other personages of high birth are reckoned up, and part is written down after old songs and ballads which our forefathers had for their amusement. Now, although we cannot just say what truth there may be in these, yet we have the certainty that old and wise men held them to be true.(…)

The priest Are Frode (the learned), a son of Thorgils the son of Geller, was the first man in this country who wrote down in the Norse language narratives of events both old and new. In the beginning of his book he wrote principally about the first settlements in Iceland, the laws and government, and next of the lagmen, and how long each had administered the law; and he reckoned the years at first, until the time when Christianity was introduced into Iceland, and afterwards reckoned from that to his own times.

To this he added many other subjects, such as the lives and times of kings of Norway and Denmark, and also of England; besides accounts of great events which have taken place in this country itself. His narratives are considered by many men of knowledge to be the most remarkable of all; because he was a man of good understanding, and so old that his birth was as far back as the year after Harald [4] Sigurdson’s fall. He wrote, as he himself says, the lives and times of the kings of Norway from the report of Od Kolson, a grandson of Hal of Sida.

Od again took his information from Thorgeir Afradskol, who was an intelligent man, and so old that when Earl Hakon the Great was killed he was dwelling at Nidarnes—the same place at which King Olaf Trygvason afterwards laid the foundation of the merchant town of Nidaros (i. e. Throndhjem) which is now there.

The priest Are came, when seven years old, to Haukadal to Hal Thorarinson, and was there fourteen years. Hal was a man of great knowledge and of excellent memory; and he could even remember being baptized, when he was three years old, by the priest Thangbrand, the year before Christianity was established by law in Iceland.

Are was twelve years of age when Bishop Isleif died, and at his death eighty years had elapsed since the fall of Olaf Trygvason. Hal died nine years later than Bishop Isleif, and had attained nearly the age of ninety-four years. Hal had traded between the two countries, and had enjoyed intercourse with King Olaf the Saint, by which he had gained greatly in reputation, and he had become well acquainted with the kingdom of Norway. He had fixed his residence in Haukadal when he was thirty years of age, and he had dwelt there sixty-four years, as Are tells us.

Teit, a son of Bishop Isleif, was fostered in the house of Hal at Haukadal, and afterwards dwelt there himself. He taught Are the priest, and gave him information about many circumstances which Are afterwards wrote down.

Are also got many a piece of information from Thurid, [5] a daughter of the gode Snorre. She was wise and intelligent, and remembered her father Snorre, who was nearly thirty-five years of age when Christianity was introduced into Iceland, and died a year after King Olaf the Saint’s fall. So it is not wonderful that Are the priest had good information about ancient events both here in Iceland, and abroad, being a man anxious for information, intelligent and of excellent memory, and having besides learned much from old intelligent persons. But the songs seem to me most reliable if they are sung correctly, and judiciously interpreted.»


Saxo Grammaticus – Gesta Danorum (History of the Danes), the Preface, dating to ca. AD 1200 (For online text see: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1150/1150-h/1150-h.htm#link2H_PREF )

Snorri Sturluson – Heimskringla (The Sagas of the Norwegian Kings), dating to ca. AD 1225 (For online text see: http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1703 )

Landnámabók (unknown authors)